What is iron making

Iron making

In this video we will look at iron making. Take a look at this beautiful wrought iron gate. Do you like it? But how do you make iron? We will follow the path of iron today. From raw materials to consumables. From iron ore to steel. Iron ore is a mineral resource, so it is important to mine it. 1. Ore mining Iron ore is often found in surface deposits, so iron ore was and is often mined in open-cast mining. There are different types of iron ores. The most important ones are: hematite (Fe2O3), another iron ore is magnetite (Fe3O4) and also siderite (FeCO3 iron carbonate) is an important iron ore. The second stage on the way from ore to steel is ore processing. The large pieces of iron ore are crushed in order to be prepared for transport and processing. The central stage of steel production is: 3. The blast furnace process Blast furnaces are large towers that are jacketed with steel on the outside. The blast furnace is charged with coal and iron ore (Fe2O3 iron trioxide) from above. The temperature in the blast furnace increases continuously from top to bottom. At the entrance it is around 250 degrees Celsius and at the bottom of the furnace it reaches values ​​around 2300 Celsius. That's why I draw the colors from light yellow to bright red starting at the top. At the entrance to the furnace, the two oxides of carbon are formed from the coal: carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon monoxide reacts with the iron oxide (Fe2O3 the iron ore -> Fe3O4 + CO2) At even higher temperatures, at around 700 degrees Celsius, the iron oxide (Fe3O4) reacts with the carbon monoxide (CO). 3FeO and CO2 are formed. At temperatures around 1000 degrees Celsius, the reaction of carbon with carbon dioxide takes place (C + CO2 -> 2CO). Carbon monoxide is formed. Carbon monoxide now reduces iron two dioxide (FeO + CO -> Fe + CO2) at temperatures above 1000 degrees Celsius. Iron is formed here in solid form. The melting temperature of iron is reached at 1600 degrees Celsius and iron becomes liquid. At even higher temperatures, the carbon is oxidized (2C + O2 -> 2CO). In order to burn the coal, air is blown in in the form of wind. The iron is tapped at temperatures around 2300 degrees Celsius; the slag floats on the iron. The iron obtained in this way is called pig iron. You don't have to learn every single step now. A simplified representation is often used in schools. I would like to introduce them to you: The carbon of the coal reacts with the oxygen to form carbon dioxide (C + O2 -> CO2). Carbon dioxide continues to react with coal (CO2 + C -> 2CO). Carbon monoxide is formed. The iron ore (Fe2O3) is reduced by carbon monoxide, iron is formed and carbon dioxide is released (Fe2O3 + 3CO -> 2Fe + 3CO2). Steel now has to be made from pig iron. 4. Steel making What is the difference between pig iron and steel? The difference is due to the different content of the chemical element carbon. If the iron contains less than 2.1% carbon, it is called steel. If it contains more than 2.1% carbon, it is pig iron. Steel can be made from pig iron, e.g. B. can be obtained in such a crucible as shown here. To do this, it is necessary to melt the pig iron and blow in oxygen. The oxygen reacts with the carbon of the pig iron and combines to form carbon dioxide (C + O2 -> CO2). Pig iron became steel. However, in order to obtain objects of daily use, the steel has to be processed and processed. 5. Steel processing I would like to name a few important methods of steel processing: There is casting. Pulling is very important. Bending creates a deformation, just like steel is deformed by pressing. Long, narrow objects are made from large, compact objects by rolling. The production chain is now complete: from ore to steel. Let us now summarize: Steel production begins with ore mining. The second step is the preparation of the ore. Large pieces of ore are crushed. The central process in steel production is the blast furnace process. 3. In the blast furnace process, the iron ore (an iron oxide) is reduced to iron with carbon monoxide. Pig iron is produced with a relatively high carbon content. Steel is obtained from pig iron by blowing oxygen into the liquid pig iron. By processing steel (5.) you can finally get utility items made of steel. One of the options is pulling. The production chain is closed: steel was extracted from iron ore. I thank you for the attention. All the best. Goodbye.