Did the October Revolution save Turkey

Young people between exclusion and integration

until the end of the 19th century

4th-7th century:
Germanic migration from the Baltic Sea area to the area of ​​the Roman Empire. The possible reasons for the migration of peoples are diverse and depend on the location. Among other things, land shortages in north-eastern Europe due to the increasing population and unfavorable climatic conditions are repeatedly discussed among the researchers.

1600 to 1950:
Europe becomes a continent of emigration. Between 1600 and 1950, around 70 million people emigrated overseas from Europe, in particular to North and South America, Algeria, southern Africa, Palestine, Australia and New Zealand. The emigrants include political and religious dissidents, adventurers, but above all the poor and the dispossessed. One reason to emigrate is, for example, the great famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849, which caused many Irish people to leave their country in the hope of better living conditions.

17th century:
Huguenots (French Protestants) flee to Prussia. In the second half of the 17th century they made up about a third of the population of Berlin. From 1530 the practice of the Protestants' faith was strongly suppressed by the Catholic clergy and the king in France. From 1685 the persecution of the Protestants reached a climax and triggered a wave of refugees of a quarter of a million Huguenots into the surrounding Protestant countries.

19th century:
Eastern European Jews are fleeing from Russia, Ukraine, what is now Poland and the Baltic States. Due to anti-Semitism, pogroms and poverty, they also immigrate to Germany. They are establishing themselves as a new ethnic-religious minority in Berlin, among other places. Before the National Socialists came to power, the Jewish community in Berlin had 170,000 members (about 1/3 of the Jews in the German Empire). However, none of these Jewish communities survived the Nazi era and World War II. At the beginning of 1940 there were only 80,000 Jews living in Berlin and after the start of the deportations in June 1943 there were only 6,800. A total of 55,600 Berlin Jews were killed as a result of transports, pogroms and suicides alone.