Why do Bangaloreans hate Chennai

Bangalore - Bangalore

Capital of Karnataka, India
Metropolis in Karnataka, India
Bengaluru
Nicknames:
Silicon Valley of India, garden city
Interactive map of Bangalore
Coordinates: 12.979 ° N 77.591 ° E Coordinates: 12.979 ° N 77.591 ° E. 12 ° 58'44 "N 77 ° 35'28" E. /. / 12.979; 77.591 12 ° 58'44 "N 77 ° 35'28" E. /. / 12.979; 77,591
country India
Status Karnataka
region Bayaluseemé
circle Bangalore Urban
Established 1537
Founded by Kempe Gowda I.
government
• Art Urban society
• Administrator
(in the absence of the mayor)
Rakesh Singh, IAS
• Community Commissioner Gaurav Gupta, IAS
Area
• Metropolis 741 km 2 (286 square miles)
• Subway 8005 km 2 (3,091 square miles)
elevation 920 m
population
• Metropolis 8,443,675
• Rank 3 ..
• Density 11,000 / km 2 (30,000 / sq mi)
• Urban 10.456.000
• Rank 5 ..
Demonym (s) Bangalorean, Bengalurinavaru, Bengalurean, Bengaluriga
Time zone UTC + 05: 30 (IST)
PIN code (s)
Area code (s) + 91- (0) 80
Vehicle registration KA- 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 41, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61
Metro GDP $ 45 billion to $ 83 billion
Official language Kannada
website www .bbmp .gov .in

Bangalore (/ b æ ŋ ɡ ə lɔː R /), officially known as Bengaluru ([Beŋɡəɭuːɾu] (listen) ) is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than 8 million and a metropolitan population of around 11 million. This makes it the third largest city and the fifth largest urban agglomeration in India. Bangalore is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an altitude of over 900 m above sea level and is known for its pleasant climate all year round. Its height is the highest among the major cities of India.

The city's history dates back to around 890 AD in a stone inscription found in the Nageshwara Temple in Begur, Bangalore. The Begur inscription is written in Halegannada (old Kannada) and mentions 'Bengaluru Kalaga' (Battle of Bengaluru). It was a major turning point in the history of Bangalore as it contains the earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru". In 1537 AD, Kempé Gowdā - a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire - built a mud fortress that served as the basis of modern Bangalore and its oldest territories or Pete applies that exist to this day. After the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire in the 16th century, the Mughals sold Bangalore for three lakh rupees to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. When Haider Ali took control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands. It was captured by the British East India Company after the victory in the fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), which returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old town developed under the rule of the Maharajah of Mysore and became the capital of the princely state of Mysore, which existed as the nominally sovereign unit of the British Raj. In 1809 the British moved their canton to Bangalore, outside the Old City, and a city emerged around them that was ruled as part of British India. After India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of the state of Mysore and remained the capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was established in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore - city and canton - which had developed as independent units merged into a single city center in 1949. The existing Kannada name Bengalūru was declared the city's official name in 2006.

Bangalore is widely regarded as the "Silicon Valley of India" (or "IT Capital of India") as it plays the role of the leading information technology (IT) exporter in the country. Indian technology organizations are headquartered in the city. Bangalore is a demographically diverse city and the second fastest growing major metropolis in India. Recent estimates of the metro economy in its metropolitan area have ranked Bangalore as either the fourth or fifth most productive metro area in India. Bangalore is home to 7,700 millionaires and 8 billionaires with total assets of $ 320 billion. It is home to many educational and research institutions. There are numerous state aerospace and defense organizations in the city. The city is also home to the Kannada film industry. According to the Ease of Living Index 2020, it was ranked as the most livable Indian city with over a million inhabitants.

etymology

The name "Bangalore" represents an Anglicized version of the original Kannada name Bengalūru (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, [ˈBeŋɡəɭuːru] (listen) ). It is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore and was used by Kempegowda to baptize the city as Bangalore at the time of its founding. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was in a stone inscription from the western Ganga dynasty from the 9th century on a vīra gallu found (Kannada: ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು; literally "Heldenstein", a rock edict that extols the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place where AD 890. Chr. A battle was fought. It is said that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and as " Bengaval-uru ", the" City of Guards "in Halegannada (old Kannada).

An apocryphal story tells that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II got lost in the forest on a hunting expedition. Tired and hungry, he met a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (literally "city of boiled beans"), which eventually developed into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has an explanation for a possible floral origin of the name submitted that of Benga derived is , the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium (also called Indian Cinema tree known), a type of dry and moist deciduous trees that are plentiful grown are the region.

On December 11, 2005, the Karnataka government announced that it had accepted a proposal to name Jnanpith Award winner UR Ananthamurthy Bangalore Bengaluru . On September 27, 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change. The government of Karnataka accepted the proposal and it was decided to officially implement the name change from November 1, 2006. The Union government approved this application along with name changes for 11 other cities in Karnataka in October 2014, which is why Bangalore was "renamed". Bengaluru "on November 1, 2014.

history

Early and medieval history

A discovery of Stone Age artifacts during India's 2001 census in Jalahalli, Sidhapura, and Jadigenahalli, all of which are now on the outskirts of Bangalore, suggests a likely human settlement around 4000 BC. Chr. Hin. Around 1,000 BC BC (Iron Age) tombs were built in Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius and Claudius found in Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that the region was founded in 27 BC. Participated in the transoceanic trade with the Romans and other civilizations.

The region of what is now Bangalore was part of several successive South Indian kingdoms. Between the fourth and tenth centuries, the Bangalore region was ruled by the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka, the first dynasty to establish effective control over the region. According to Edgar Thurston, there were 28 kings who ruled Gangavadi from the beginning of the Christian era until it was conquered by the Cholas. These kings belonged to two different dynasties: the earlier line of Solar race, which had a succession of seven kings of the Ratti or Reddi tribe, and the later line of the Ganga race. The western Gangas ruled the region first as a sovereign power (350-550) and later as the feudatory of the Chalukyas of Badami, followed by the Rashtrakutas until the tenth century. The Begur Nageshwara Temple was commissioned around 860 during the reign of the western Ganga king Ereganga Nitimarga I and was expanded by his successor Nitimarga II. Around 1004, during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, the Cholas defeated the western Gangas under the command of Crown Prince Rajendra Chola I and conquered Bangalore. During this time, many groups migrated to the Bangalore area - warriors, administrators, traders, artisans, pastoralists, cultivators and religious personnel from Tamil Nadu and other Kannada regions. The Chokkanathaswamy Temple in Domlur, the Aigandapura Complex near Hesaraghatta, the Mukthi Natheshwara Temple in Binnamangala, the Choleshwara Temple in Begur and the Someshwara Temple in Madiwala date from the Chola period.

In 1117 the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana defeated the Cholas at the Battle of Talakad in the south of Karnataka and extended his rule over the region. Vishnuvardhana expelled the Cholas from all parts of the state of Mysore. At the end of the 13th century, Bangalore became a point of contention between two belligerent cousins, Hoysala rulers Veera Ballala III of Halebidu and Ramanatha, who administered from Hoysala Territory in Tamil Nadu. Veera Ballala III had made a citizen of Hudi (now within the boundaries of the Bangalore Municipal Corporation), promoting the village to city status. After the death of Veera Ballala III in 1343, the Vijayanagara Empire was the next empire to rule the region. Four dynasties emerged here, the Sangamas (1336–1485), the Saluvas (1485–1491) and the Tuluvas (1491–) 1565) and the Aravidu (1565–1646). During the reign of the Vijayanagara Empire, Achyuta Deva Raya from the Tuluva dynasty built the Shivasamudra dam over the Arkavati River in Hesaraghatta, the reservoir of which provides the present-day city with regular tap water.

Foundation and early modern history

Modern Bangalore was started in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who allied with the Vijayanagara Empire to fight Gangaraja (whom he defeated and drove to Kanchi) and who was a mud-brick fortress for the people built in the place that would become the central part of modern Bangalore. Kempe Gowda was restricted by rules from Achuta Deva Raya, who feared the potential power of Kempe Gowda and did not allow an impressive stone fortress. Kempe Gowda called the new city his "gandubhūmi" or "land of heroes". Within the fortress, the city was divided into smaller compartments - each known as "pete" ( Kannada pronunciation: [peːteː]). The city had two main streets - Chikkapeté Street, which ran east to west, and Doddapeté Street, which ran north to south. Their intersection was Doddapeté Square - the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda I's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four towers that marked Bangalore's border. During the Vijayanagara reign, many saints and poets referred to Bangalore as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" or "Kalyānapuri" ("auspicious city").

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565 at the Battle of Talikota, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. Kempe Gowda declared independence, then defeated a large army in 1638 by Adil Shahi Bijapur, led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by his deputy Shāhji Bhōnslé, Kempe Gowda III, and Bangalore was considered Shāhji Jagir (feudal property) handed over. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan, under the orders of Aurangzeb, defeated Ekoji I, son of Shāhji and sell Bangalore Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II. In 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander in Chief of the Mysore Army, declared himself de facto to Ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. Hyder Ali is credited with building the gates of Delhi and Mysore at the north and south ends of the city in 1760. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan. Hyder and Tipu helped beautify the city by building the Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760. Under them, Bangalore developed into a commercial and military center of strategic importance.

The fort of Bangalore was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on March 21, 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and formed a center for the British resistance against Tipu Sultan. After Tipu's death in the fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore and were incorporated into the princely state of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign unit of the British Raj. The old town ("pētē") developed under the rule of the Maharajah of Mysore. The Mysore State Residence was established in Mysore City in 1799 and later relocated to Bangalore in 1804. It was abolished in 1843, revived in Bangalore in 1881 and finally closed in 1947 with Indian independence. The British found Bangalore a convenient and convenient place to station their garrison, so in 1809 they moved their canton from Seringapatam near Ulsoor, about 6 kilometers northeast of the city, to Bangalore. A city grew up around the canton by taking in several villages in the area. The new center had its own communal and administrative apparatus, although technically it was a British enclave on the territory of the Wodeyar kings of the princely state of Mysore. Two major developments that contributed to the rapid growth of the city were the introduction of telegraph connections to all major Indian cities in 1853 and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

Later modern and contemporary history

In the 19th century, Bangalore was essentially a twin city, with the "PETE", whose residents were mostly Kannadigas and the barracks created by the British. Over the course of the 19th century, the cantonment gradually expanded and acquired distinct cultural and political importance as it was ruled directly by the British and was known as the civil and military station of Bangalore. While it remained in the princely territory of Mysore, Cantonment had a large military presence and a cosmopolitan civilian population from outside the princely state of Mysore, including British and Anglo-Indian army officers.

Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that killed nearly 3,500 people. The crisis caused by the outbreak catalyzed the city's plumbing process. Telephone lines were laid to help coordinate plague control efforts. The regulations for building new houses with adequate sanitation have come into force. A health officer was appointed and the city was divided into four districts for better coordination. Victoria Hospital was inaugurated in 1900 by Lord Curzon, then Governor General of British India. In the north and south of the Pētē, new extensions have been developed in Malleswaram and Basavanagudi. Motor vehicles were introduced in Bangalore in 1903. In 1906, Bangalore was one of the first cities in India to receive electricity from hydropower powered by the Shivanasamudra hydropower station. The Indian Institute of Science was founded in 1909, which later played an important role in the development of the city as a center for scientific research. In 1912, the Bangalore torpedo, an offensive explosive device widespread in World War I and II, was developed in Bangalore by British Army officer Captain McClintock of the Madras Sappers and Miners.

Bangalore's reputation as the "Garden City of India" began in 1927 with the silver jubilee celebrations of the reign of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals have been initiated to improve the city. Bangalore played an important role during the Indian independence movement. Mahatma Gandhi visited the city in 1927 and 1934 and spoke here at public meetings. In 1926, the labor unrest at Binny Mills over the textile workers' demand for bonus payment resulted in Lathi charges and police shots in which four workers died and several were injured. There was notable community unrest in Bangalore in July 1928 when a Ganesh idol was removed from school grounds in the Sultanpet area of ​​Bangalore. 1940 saw the start of the first flight between Bangalore and Bombay, which put the city on India's map.

After India gained independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the newly carved state of Mysore, whose Maharaja of Mysore the Rajapramukh (appointed governor) was. The City Improvement Trust was founded in 1945 and in 1949 City and Cantonment merged to form the Bangalore City Corporation. The government of Karnataka formed the Bangalore Development Authority in 1976 to coordinate the activities of these two bodies. Employment and education in the public sector gave Kannadigas from the rest of the state the opportunity to immigrate to the city. Bangalore saw rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, with large numbers of immigrants arriving from the north of Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore was India's sixth largest city with a population of 1,207,000. In the decades that followed, the manufacturing base in Bangalore was further expanded with the establishment of private companies such as MICO (Motor Industries Company), which set up their manufacturing facility in the city.

By the 1980s it was clear that urbanization had gone beyond current limits, and in 1986 the Bangalore Metropolitan Area Development Agency was established to coordinate the development of the entire region as a unit. On February 8, 1981, a major fire broke out in Venus Circus in Bangalore, killing more than 92 people, most of them children. Bangalore saw a surge in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large parcels and colonial bungalows into multi-story apartments. In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational to set up a base in Bangalore. Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had established itself as a Silicon Valley of India established . Today Bangalore is India's third largest city. During the 21st century, Bangalore suffered terrorist attacks in 2008, 2010 and 2013.

Geography

Bangalore is located in the southeast of the southern Indian state of Karnataka. It is located in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Cretaceous Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 900 meters, located at 12.97 ° N 77.56 ° E, and extends over an area of ​​741 km 2 . Most of the city of Bangalore is in the Karnataka Borough of Bangalore, and the surrounding rural areas are part of the Bangalore Borough. The government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old district of Bangalore. 12 ° 58'N 77 ° 34'E /. / 12.97; 77.56

Bangalore's topology is generally flat, although the western parts of the city are hilly. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli, 962 meters high and located in the northwest of the city. No major rivers flow through the city, although the Arkavathi and South Pennar trails cross in the Nandi Hills, 60 kilometers to the north. The Vrishabhavathi River, a small tributary of the Arkavathi, has its source in the city of Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi Rivers together carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewage system built in 1922 extends over 215 km 2 of the city and is connected to five sewage treatment plants on the outskirts of Bangalore.

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I built many lakes to meet the city's water needs. The Kempambudhi Kere has been prominent among these lakes since it was overrun by modern developments. In the first half of the 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 AD) to supply the city with water. The Kaveri River provides around 80% of the city's total water supply, with the remaining 20% ​​coming from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi River. Bangalore receives 800 million liters (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city. However, Bangalore sometimes experiences water shortages, especially in summer - especially in the years with little rainfall. A sample study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations in the city found values ​​between 76 and 314, indicating high to high levels of air pollution in areas with a high concentration of traffic.

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are the Madivala Tank, Hebbal Lake, Ulsoor Lake, Yediyur Lake, and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in muddy to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the region and includes granites, gneiss and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore are composed of red laterite and red, finely loamy to loamy soils.

Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Although Bangalore was classified as part of Seismic Zone II (a stable zone), there have been tremors up to 4.5 magnitudes in magnitude.

climate

Bangalore has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw ) with different rainy and dry seasons. Because of its high altitude, Bangalore usually has a more temperate climate all year round, although occasional heat waves can make the summer a little uncomfortable. The coolest month is January with an average low of 15.1 ° C and the hottest month is April with an average high of 35 ° C. The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 39.2 ° C (103 ° F) (measured on April 24, 2016), as there was a strong El Niño in 2016. There was also an unofficial record of 41 ° C (106 ° F) that day. The lowest value ever recorded is 7.8 ° C in January 1884. Winter temperatures rarely drop below 14 ° C, and summer temperatures rarely exceed 36 ° C. Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and southwest monsoons. The wettest months are September, October, and August in that order. The summer heat is tempered by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally lead to power outages and local flooding. Most precipitation falls in the late afternoon / evening or at night and rain before noon is rare. November 2015 (290.4mm) was recorded as one of the wettest months in Bangalore. Heavy rains caused severe flooding in some areas and the closure of a number of organizations for more than a few days. The heaviest rainfall recorded within 24 hours is 179 millimeters (7 in), which was recorded on October 1, 1997.

Climate data for Bangalore (1981-2010, Extreme 1901-2012)
month Jan. Feb To damage Apr Can Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec year
Record high ° C (° F) 32,8
(91,0)
35,9
(96,6)
37,3
(99,1)