Avargal is Tamil equivalent of Telugu Garu

To honor - Honorific

Title that conveys appreciation, courtesy, or respect for position or rank
For honors in Japanese and Korean grammar, see Honors (Linguistics).

A Honorary title is a title that conveys appreciation, courtesy, or respect for position or rank when used to address or refer to a person. Sometimes the term "honorable" is used in a more specific sense to refer to an honorary academic title. It is also often brought into conflict with systems of honorary language in linguistics, which are grammatical or morphological methods of coding the relative social status of speakers. Honorifics can be used as prefixes or suffixes depending on the occasion and presentation, depending on the style and mores.

Typically, honors are used as a grammatical third person style and a second person salutation. Use in the first person by the honored dignitary is unusual or viewed as very rude and selfish. Some languages ​​have anti-honorable ( despective or humiliating ) First-person forms (expressions such as "your most humble Servant "or" that unworthy person "), the effect of which is to increase the relative honor bestowed on the person addressed.

Modern English honors

The most common honors in modern English are usually placed immediately before a person's name. The honors used (both as a style and as a salutation) include, in the case of a man, "Mr." (regardless of marital status) and in the case of a woman, depending on the marital status, one of two beforehand: "Miss", if unmarried, but "Ms." if married; More recently, a third, "woman," has become the predominant norm, largely because women no longer wanted to be identified by marital status. Further considerations for identifying individuals by gender are currently being addressed with varying prevalence and detail. In some environments, honors such as Mx, Ind., Or Misc. can be used frequently or occasionally to identify individuals by gender, or at least by individuals who choose to do so, but without yet having a broad general prevalence. In some settings, the "Mstr" badge of honor can be used for a boy who has not yet entered adult society. Similar to this, "Miss" may be considered appropriate for a girl but inappropriate for a woman (but unless parallel to "Mstr", the reason is not explicitly given). Note: All of the above except "Miss" are written as abbreviations. Most of them were originally abbreviations (e.g. from "Mister", "Mistress"). Others can be viewed as coined to be connected directly in parallel for the sake of consistency. Abbreviations that contain the first and last letters (a kind of contraction) are typically written in British English, without emergency braking (periods), but always ending with a period in American English.

Other honors may denote the honored person's profession, for example "Doctor", "Esquire", "Captain", "Trainer", "Officer", "The Reverend" (for all Christian clergy) or "Father" (for a Catholic ). Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox or Anglican Christian priest), "Rabbi" for Jewish clergy or professor. Holders of an academic doctorate such as the PhD are addressed as "Doktor" (abbreviated to Dr).

Some honors serve as a complete substitute for a name, such as "Sir" or "Ma'am" or "Your honor / honor". Subordinates often use honors as punctuation before asking a manager a question or after responding to an order: "Yes, sir" or even "Sir, yes, sir".

Judges are often addressed as "your honor" when the plural form is "your honor" and the style is "his / her honor" on the bench. If the judge has a higher title, this can be the right honor, for example for judges at the High Court in England: "Your Lordship" or "My Lord". Members of the US Supreme Court are addressed as "Justice".

Similarly, a monarch classified as King / Queen or Emperor and his / her consort may be addressed or referred to as "Her / His / Her Majesty", "Her Majesties" etc. (but there is no common honor who is granted a consort of the female monarch, as he is usually granted a certain style). Monarchs below royal rank are referred to as "His / Her Highness" with the exact rank indicated by an appropriate modifier, e.g. B. "His Serene Highness" for a member of a princely dynasty or "Your Grand Ducal Highness" for a member of a family that rules a Grand Duchy. Verbs with these decorations as the subject are conjugated in the third person (e.g. "you go" versus "your honor goes" or "your royal highness goes"). The protocol for monarchs and aristocrats can be very complex, with no general rule; A great offense can be committed through the use of a form that is not exactly correct. There are differences between "Your Highness" and "Your Royal Highness"; between "Princess Margaret" and "The Princess Margaret". All of this is correct, but it applies to people of subtly different rank. An example of a non-obvious style is "Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother," which is an official style but only applies to one person.

In music, a respected conductor or virtuoso instrumentalist may be known as a "maestro".

In aviation, pilots commanding larger civil aircraft are usually addressed as "captain" plus their full first or last name. This tradition is slowly waning in the United States and most of the European Union countries. Many countries, especially in Asia, follow this tradition and address airline pilots, military pilots and flight instructors exclusively as "captains" outside of their professional environment. In addition, the etiquette rules of these countries require that this title be displayed on all official letters and social invitations, business cards, identification documents, etc. In the US, common etiquette when addressing a pilot does not require the title "Captain" "to be printed in front of the full name of the recipient on official letters or invitations, but this is optional (similar to" Esq "after the name of an attorney in the USA) and can be used if necessary, especially if flight pilots with many years of experience are addressed.

Citizens and political officials can be addressed with a badge of honor. A President can be addressed as Your Excellency or Mr / Mrs President, a Minister or Secretary of State as "Your Excellency" or Mr / Mrs Secretary, etc. A prime minister can be addressed as "the master". In the UK, members of the Privy Council are referred to as "The Right Honorable ...". A MP or other legislative body may have special honors. For example, a member of a Senate can be addressed as a "Senator". Etiquette varies, and most countries have a protocol that specifies the honors to be used for their state, judicial, military, and other officials.

Former military officers are sometimes referred to by their last military rank, such as "captain", "colonel", "general" etc. This is generally only adopted by officers who have served at least the rank equivalent of major. In the United States, veterans of all ranks who served during the war and were honorably discharged may hold the title of the highest rank, both officer and enlisted under Act 10 USC 772e.

Examples

Honors in other languages ​​and cultures

Culture-specific use

Africa

In areas of East Africa where the Bantu language Swahili is spoken, mzee is often used by younger speakers to denote an older respect. It is used in face-to-face conversation and used to refer to someone in the third person.

While Swahili is Bantu, it is heavily influenced by Arabic and Hindi languages ​​and cultures. Babu is an honorary prefix used with elders, similar to Mzee , but can also mean grandfather. Other prefix honors are ndugu for a brother or a close male friend and dada for a sister or close friend; So John and Jane Ndugu would be John and Dada Jane, respectively.

Among the Akan ethnic groups in Ghana, West Africa, the word Nana Used by chiefs and elders alike as an aristocratic pre-nomination.

In Yorubaland, also in West Africa, the word becomes ogbeni used as a synonym for the English "Mister". Hence, titled members of the aristocracy of the region are instead Called Oloye what the word is for "chief". Although the former of the two titles is only used by men, the latter is used to address aristocrats of both sexes.

Ancient Rome

Some honors used by the ancient Romans, such as Augustus, became titles over time.

China

During ancient times and the Imperial Era, Chinese honors varied greatly depending on social status, but with the end of Imperial China, many of these distinctions fell out of slang due to the May 4th Movement. Some honors are still used today, especially in formal writings for the court and the business community.

India

There are many Indian honors covering formal and informal relationships for commercial, generational, social and spiritual connections. Badges of honor can be prefix, suffix, or surrogate types. There are many variations.

  • Prefix type : The most common honors in India are usually placed immediately before the subject's name. Badges of Honor that can be used by any adult of the appropriate gender include Sri (also as Shri , Short for Sriman , romanized ), Smt (Short for Srimati ) and Cum (Short for Kumari ). In Punjab will Sardar for Sikh men and Sardarni used for Sikh women. Be in Tamil Thiru (Short for Thiruvalar for men) and Thirumathi (for women) used. In Telugu, Chi (short for 'chiranjeevi') is used for younger men and Chi.La.Sou (Chiranjeevini Lakshmi Soubhagyavathi) is used in front of the names of younger women. In India, honors usually come before the name of the object.
  • Replacement type : Some honorifics like Bhavan or bhavati , act as a complete substitute for a name. In Gujarati, for example, an uncle who is your mother's brother will be replaced Honorary Maama (long "a", then short "a") is used, and a male friend is often given the suffix "Badge of Honor from." Bhai " .
  • Suffix type :
    • The traditional Hindi decoration is the suffix -ji . For example, MK Gandhi (the Mahatma) was often called Gandhi -ji called . (Hindi, like many languages, distinguishes between pronouns for people who are older or older. Such a person is called called aap ; becomes a person of the same status called tum (Both are translated as "you" in English, but are basically similar to the vous / do Distinction in French or usted / Distinction in Spanish). A similar distinction exists for third-person pronouns. When badges of honor are appended in Hindi, the verb matches the plural.)
    • The traditional Bengali decoration for common men is the suffix Babu (বাবু), which is used with the person's first name. So Shubhash Basu would be Shubhash-Babu. For men with whom there is a more formal relationship, the suffix becomes Moshai (মশাই) ( mohashoi (মহাশয়)) used with the person's surname (last name). So Shubhash Basu would be Basu-Moshai.
    • The traditional Kannada badge is the suffix -avaru . For example, Visveswariah was called Visveswariah -avaru called .
    • The traditional Marathi badge is the suffix -rao . For example, Madhav Scindia was called Madhav -rao called .
    • The traditional Mizo honors for men and women are the prefix Pooh or. pi . For example Pu Laldenga or Pi Ropuiliani. In addition, the prefix U be used for older siblings.
    • The traditional Tamil decoration is the suffix Avargal . Dalai Lama would be Dalai Lama Become avargal .
    • The traditional Telugu decoration is the suffix Garu . So Potti Sriramulu would be Potti Sriramulu Garu .

Italy

Italian honors are usually limited to formal situations. Professional title like Ingegnere (Engineer) often replace the normal Signor / Signora (Mr or mrs) while Dottors or Dottoressa (Doctor) can be freely used for any graduate of a university. For university professors in an academic environment, the honors Professors or Professoressa Precedence Dottors or Dottoressa . Masculine honorifics lose theirs e ends when placed next to each other on a name: e.g. Dottor Rossi, Cardinal Martini, Ragionier Fantozzi. Verbs are conjugated in the third person singular (as opposed to the second person singular) when addressing someone with a badge of honor, and the formal pronoun Lei (with an uppercase L) is used in place of the informal Tu used .

Japan

The Japanese word for honors, Keigo (敬 語), is used in everyday Japanese conversation. Japanese honors are similar to English, with titles like "Mister" and "Miss", but Japanese, which has many honors, makes their use mandatory in many formal and informal social situations. Japanese grammar as a whole tends to work in hierarchy. Honor stems are appended to verbs and many nouns, mostly names, and in many cases a word can be substituted for another word that has completely the same verb or noun meaning but has different honor connotations.

There are three broad categories of honors in Japan:

  • Teineigo (丁寧 語), the most popular Keigo used in daily life is used as a formal and polite way of speaking to others in general. It is usually used when the speaker doesn't know the other person well. Under Teineigo there is also Bikago (美化 語, nice, clean language ), which is used when people just want to speak politely, regardless of the other person's age or class.
  • Sonkeigo (尊敬 語) is a different type of Keigo . It is used to elevate the person being spoken to. It is mainly used at work and when talking to teachers. In the past, this was a type of language formed on the basis of the classes that Japanese society used to have. Saikoukeigo (yes: 最高 敬 語) is the highest in existence Sonkeigo and is used only for the Japanese emperor, his family members, and foreign nobles of equal value.
  • Kenjougo (謙 譲 語) lowers the position of the speaker or topic of conversation and is mainly used in the workplace and in academia. This is also specifically used when the person is much older or in a higher position than the speaker, or when apologizing to another person.

Java

The Javanese majority affiliation of Indonesia has many honors. For example:

  • Bang or Exercise is a somewhat outdated, egalitarian term that refers to a brotherhood among men. Bang is Betawi language for Mas .
  • Bapak and its contraction Pak means: "Sir", "Mister" or literally "Father".
  • Bapak Cilik and its contraction Pak lik are used for a very intimate friend or gentleman; They literally mean "little father" or a relative who is younger than your own father.
  • Bapak Gede and its contraction Pak de are used for a great father, uncle, or relative who is older than their own father, which literally means "Grand Sir".
  • Bendara Raden Mas , Bendara Mas or the contraction ' ndoro which means "Prince, Standard Bearer 'His Highness'".
  • Eyang Putera Kakung and its contraction Eyang Kakung means "grandfather", literally " Grand Sir ".
  • Eyang Puteri and its contraction Eyang means "grandmother", literally "grand lady".
  • Ibu and its contraction Bu means: "woman", "woman", "woman" or "woman" and literally means "mother".
  • I Gusti means "His or Her Royal Majesty".
  • Kyai is an honor used by a highly respected Muslim clergyman (just like Mullah in Iran and Maulana in South Asia).
  • Mbak yu and the more common mbak descend from the court in Surakarta. Originally used for unmarried women of adolescence or marriageable age, they are now used with all women with no connotation of age or marital status.
  • Mbok is not a badge of honor; it denotes an elderly woman of very low status, in some cases a domestic worker.
  • Raden Behi who at The Behi is under contract , means "apparent inheritance" and is now obsolete.
  • Raden Emas and its contraction Mas denote: "Mr." among colleagues, friends and other persons of slightly older age or social status, which literally means "golden son", "master" or "apparent heir".
  • Raden Emas Behi who at Mas Behi was signed , means "Second Apparent Heir" and is now obsolete.

Korea

Korean honors are similar to Japanese honors, and similarly, their use is mandatory in many formal and informal social situations. Korean grammar as a whole tends to function hierarchically. Honor stems are appended to verbs and some nouns, and in many cases a word can be substituted for another word with the same verb or noun meaning but with different honor connotations. Linguists say there are six levels of honor in Korean, but only four of them are widely used in contemporary Korean in everyday conversation. The suffix -ssi- (씨) is used at most honor verbs, but not always. It is considered very rude and offensive not to use honor phrases or words with someone who is older or of higher social status, and most Koreans avoid using disrespectful phrases with someone they have met for the first time . In Korean, names, first or last, always come before a title, e.g. B. Park Sonsaengnim, Park Kwanjangnim, etc.

Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore

A complex system of titles and honors is used extensively in the Malay-speaking cultures of Brunei and Malaysia. In contrast, Singapore, whose Malay royal family was abolished by the British colonial government in 1891, has taken on civil titles for its leaders. As Muslims, Malaysians speak of high-ranking religious scholars as Tok Imam (Grandpa Imam) at. Tok Dalang is an honor used to address a village leader.

Pakistan

Pakistan has numerous forms of honor that can be used with or as substitutes for names. The honors most used in Pakistan are usually placed immediately before the name of the subject or immediately after the subject. There are many variations in Pakistan.

  • Prefix type : The traditional Urdu decoration in Pakistan for a man is the prefix Mohtaram . For example, Syed Mohammad Jahangir would become Mohtaram Syed Mohammad Jahangir. The traditional Urdu decoration in Pakistan for a woman is the prefix Mohtarma . For example, Shamim Ara would become Mohtarma Shamim Ara.
  • Suffix type : The traditional Urdu honorary title in Pakistan for a man is the suffix Sahab . For example, Syed Zaki Ahmed would become Syed Zaki Ahmed Sahab. The traditional Urdu, which is honored for a woman in Pakistan, is the suffix Sahiba ; For example, Shamim Ara would become Shamim Ara Sahiba.
  • Hazrat is used before the names of religious leaders and scholars.

Persian cultures

Persian honors generally follow the second name, especially when they refer to gender or certain social status (e.g. name Agha [master], name Khanom [woman], name Ostad [teacher or clergyman], name Rayis [manager , Head or Director]). Such honors are used in both formal and informal situations. A more formal honor in terms of gender would be Jenab [His Excellency] who comes before the name Agha [Mr.], and Sarkar [Your Excellency] who comes before Khanom [Ms.]. A recent honorary title is Arjomand [valued] that follows other honors (with the exception of those related to gender) and is not gender specific (e.g. Ostad Arjomand Name Surname or Rayis Arjomand Sarkar Khanom Name Surname). They are generally used in very formal situations.

Philippines

The use of Filipino honors differs from person to person, although similarities such as the occasional insertion of the word po or ho occur in conversations and their dependence on age-structured hierarchies. Although some are out of date, many are still widely used to denote respect, kindness, or affection. Some new "honors", mainly used by teenagers, are growing in popularity.

The Tagalog language has honors like Binibini / Ate ("Miss", "Big Sister"), Ginang / Aling / Manang ("Woman woman"), Ginoo / Mang / Manong / Kuya ("Lord", "Lord" "," Big Brother ") that have roots in Chinese culture.

Different honors can be used depending on the relationship with the targeted party.

When reaching out to a man who is older, of a higher rank at work, or of higher social standing, you can use Mr or Mr followed by the first / last name / or full name. When addressing a woman in a situation similar to the one above, use "Miss" or "Madam" and its contraction "Ma'am" followed by first / last name / or full name. Older married women may prefer to be addressed as "woman". The use of sir / miss / madam or ma'am followed by a first name, nickname, or surname is usually limited to Filipino colloquial language and social conversation, even in television and film. Even so, non-Filipinos and naturalized Filipinos (such as expat students and professionals) also address the elderly in the Filipino way.

At the professional level, many use educational or professional titles such as architect, engineer, doctor, lawyer (often abbreviated as Arch./Archt./Ar., Engr., Dr. [or sometimes Dra. For doctors] and Atty in a casual and even more formal way Base. Stricter etiquette systems disapprove of this practice as a sign of Filipino professionals' obsession with displaying their educational level and professional status, yet some of their clients (especially non-Filipinos) would simply refer to them as Mr. or Mrs./Ms. followed by their last name (or even Sir / Ma'am) in the conversation. However, it is very rare for a Filipino (especially those born and educated overseas) to address Filipino architects, engineers, and lawyers, and even use their names in no - Mentioned and Refers to Filipino (i.e. International Way).

Even foreigners who work in the Philippines or naturalized Filipino citizens, including foreign spouses of Filipinos who hold some of these titles and qualifications (especially as instructors at Filipino colleges and universities), are addressed in the same way as their Filipino counterparts, despite this possible for some language purists who argue that the basic title or either Sir or Ma'am / Madam der To be used for simplicity, this sounds uncomfortable or unnatural as they are not required if he or she is placed on a list of wedding sponsors or if his or her name appears on the list of officials of a country club or similar organization. They are inappropriate for public donations, religious activities, parent-teacher association events, sports competitions, society pages of newspapers, and activities unrelated to title or level of education. It is also acceptable to include these titles and descriptions (except Doctor ) instead as adjective nouns (i.e. non-capitalized first letter, e.g. architect ).

Although Doctor is truly a standard English title, the "created" titles of Architect, Lawyer, and Engineer (among others) are a result of vanity (titles proclaim achievement and success; they distinguish the titleholder from the rest of the world Society). and uncertainty (the title holder's achievements and achievements could be ignored if not disclosed to the public), even due to the historical use of pseudo-headings in newspapers when Filipinos started writing in English.

Possible reasons are, on the one hand, the fact that the English taught to Filipinos was the "egalitarian" English of the New World and that the Americans who colonized the Philippines came across lowland societies that were already using Iberian language class markers such as "Don" and "Doña" . Second, the fundamental contradiction of the American colonial project. The Americans who occupied the Philippines justified their actions with the rhetoric of "benevolent assimilation". In other words, they only subjugated Filipinos to teach them values ​​like American egalitarianism, which is the opposite of colonial anti-equality. Third, the power of American colonialism lies in its emphasis on education - an education that Filipinos supposedly exposed to the "wonders" of the American way of life. Through education, the American colonial state produced a new elite of Filipinos who were trained in a new, more "modern" American system. People with advanced degrees such as law or engineering were at the forefront of this system. As such, their prestige was based not only on their supposed intelligence, but also on their mastery of the colonizer's way of life. This, Lisandro Claudio suspects, is the source of the magical and superstitious bond Filipinos have with lawyers, architects, and engineers. The language they use is still haunted by their colonial experience. They prefer professionals linguistically because their colonizers made them appreciate a certain type of office work. Again, even expatriate professionals in the Philippines have been affected by these reasons when they lived and got married or naturalized a Filipino, so it is not uncommon for them to be addressed in the Filipino style.

Spanish speaking cultures

Spanish has a number of forms of honor that come with or as a substitute for names such as Señor or Caballero ("Mr.", "Sir", "Gentleman") can be used. Senora ("Woman", "woman", "lady", "woman") and Señorita ("Miss", "Young Lady"); License for a person with a bachelor's degree or professional qualification (e.g. lawyers and engineers); maestro for a teacher, a master mechanic or a person with a masters degree; doctor ("Doctor"); etc. Also used Don (male) or doña (female) for people of rank or in some Latin American countries (e.g. Puerto Rico) for seniors. In some Latin American countries, such as Colombia, "doctor" is used to refer to any notable person, whether or not they have a PhD (for example, Colombian presidents are often referred to as doctor ___). "Maestro" is also used for artistic masters, especially painters.

In addition, older people and those with whom one would respectfully speak to (such as their boss or teacher) are often considered to be usted, abbreviated ud addressed . , a formal / respectful way of saying "you" (e.g. . B. Dra. Polo, ¿cómo está usted? Dr. Polo, how are you?). The word usted historically comes from the honorary title vuestra MERCED (literally: "Your grace"). This formal one is accompanied by conjugation that distinguishes you from the informal one . Intimate friends and relatives are considered addressed. In some regions it may be viewed as disrespectful or provocative to be a relatively stranger unless addressed to someone significantly younger than the speaker or in a particularly informal context.

Pingelap

Pingelapese is a Micronesian language spoken on the Pingelap Atoll and on two of the eastern Caroline Islands, the high island of Pohnpei. Pingelapese doesn't use many honors in her speech. Their society is structured in such a way that everyone is seen as equal, most likely due to the fact that there are so few of them due to emigration. There is no structured hierarchy to enforce the use of honorary speeches. There aren't a lot of polite vocabulary and the language they use can be classified as the language of citizens.

However, among the Micronesian languages, Pohnpeian is the only language that uses a thoroughly developed language of honor. This shows that a highly structured hierarchical society was very important in its culture. There are several ways that Pohnpeic speakers show respect through their language. In the Pohnpeischen language there is a royal language, which is used for the two highest ranking chiefs. Next, respect honors are used with other supervisors and people who are considered respected equals. In addition to the use of honors, there is humiliating language that is used to lower oneself among higher-ranking people and to show respect and awe. That speech was lost in Pingelap when Pohnpei speakers migrated to Pingelap Atoll and adjusted their casual way of speaking.

Although the younger generation of pingelapese speakers do not use honor language, the elders are taught a form of "language of respect" in the language report. This language should be used to address elders and leaders in the ward. Women were also instructed to use it on their brothers and with their children. Sentences could be made polite by using the singular possessive suffix -mwi the second person will be added . Other ways to use honor language is to completely change the words.

Thailand

According to the Thai translator Mui Poopoksakul, "The Thai language is absolutely immediate in relation to the position of the speaker and the addressee in society and their relationship to one another. Thai has honors as well as what I like to call" dishonorable ": it has a multitude of pronouns that are extremely nuanced - for example there are so many ways to say 'I' and most of them already indicate the gender of the speaker and often their age and social position in relation to the person they are with you speak. "

The most common Thai honors are used to distinguish age between friends, family, and peers. The most commonly used are:

  • คุณ ( RTGS: khun ) (Middle tone) is used in the same way as "Herr" or "Frau" or "Fräulein". It's a formal way of referring to people who aren't too familiar. It is also used as a pronoun for the word "you".
  • พี่ ( RTGS: phi ) (falling tone) is used when talking to or about an older sibling or friend. It is used for both men and women and can also be used in referring to yourself when you are older than the addressees.
  • น้อง ( RTGS: nong ) (high tone) is the exact opposite of above. It is used when talking to or through a younger sibling or friend. It is used both between men and between women and can also be used when referring to oneself when the person speaking is younger than the addressees. It could be used by a babysitter to target the child she is taking care of.
  • ครู ( RTGS: khru ) (Middle tone) is used when addressing a teacher, which literally means "teacher".
  • อาจารย์ ( RTGS: achan ) (Middle tone of both syllables) is used to address a professor. It is used much in the same way as Khru however achan carries more prestige. It generally refers to someone who is a master in their field. Many Theravada Buddhists and those who have dedicated their lives to Theravada Buddhism assume this title among their followers.
  • พระ ( RTGS: phra ) (high tone) This is perhaps one of the highest honors in Thai culture. It is reserved for monks and priests. It can also be used when referring to a most revered place or item such as a temple or palace.

Turkey

Turkish honors generally follow the given name, especially when they refer to gender or certain social status (e.g. name Bey [Lord], name Hanım [woman], name Beyefendi [literally "Lord Master"), name Hanımefendi [ literally "" Master "], name Hoca [teacher or clergyman], name Öğretmen [exclusively for teachers]). Such honors are used in both formal and informal situations Sayın / Muhterem [estimated], which comes before the surname or full name and is not gender-specific. (e.g. Sayın / Muhterem Name Surname or Sayın / Muhterem Surname). They are generally used in very formal situations.

Vietnam

Honors in Vietnamese are more complex than Chinese, where the origins of many of these pronouns can be traced and many have no longer been used or replaced due to changing times. A badge of honor or a pronoun in Vietnamese when referring to a person is used to define the degree of relationship between two people. Examples of these pronouns are "chị" older sister, "ông" male elder, and "chú" younger uncle (father's younger brother / used only on paternal side). The exclusive use of the Vietnamese words for "I" and "you" is considered informal and impolite. Rather, honors are used to refer to oneself and others. These terms generally differ from province to province or region to region. As in East Asian tradition, the last name is written before the first name (i.e. Hoang Khai Dinh: Hoang is the last name and Khai Dinh is the first name). This occurs in all formal situations. However, it has become common to use the last name last, for example to address Westerners on social media sites like Facebook. When a person is referred to as Mr. or Mrs. (teacher, painter, etc.), as is the case in the English tradition of "Mr. Hoang", the first name is more commonly used, e.g. B. "Mr. Khai Dinh") so as not to cause confusion. This is due to the fact that many Vietnamese have the same surname (e.g. up to 40% of Vietnamese have the surname Nguyen).

Wuvulu-ouch

Wuvulu-Aua does not usually contain honors as it is reserved for the greatest respect only. Originally without honors, the semantics of the pronouns change depending on the social context. In particular, the double pronoun of the second person is used as an honorary address. The double reference indicates that the second person is to be respected as two people. This award is usually reserved for in-laws. It is not documented whether other honors exist beyond this.

Opposition and alternatives

People who have a strong sense of egalitarianism, such as Quakers and certain socialists and others, eschew honorary degrees. When addressing or referring to someone, they often use the person's name, an informal pronoun, or some other style that implies social equality, such as "brother", "sister", "friend" or "mate". This was also the practice in revolutionary France and in the socialist countries in which Citizens ("Citizen") was used as a salutation.

Feminist criticism of the use of separate honors for married and unmarried women (wife and miss) has led some women to accept the honor "woman".

See also

References

Footnotes

Quotes

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media honor.