Can anything exceed the speed of time
Big Bang HTL 4, textbook
104 Thermodynamics and Modern Physics (4th year, 8th semester) Because the speed of light is so incredibly great, the root expression is practically 1 at everyday speeds and the incredibly amazing time expansion is therefore neither noticeable nor can it be measured with normal clocks ( see Tab.10.1; F5). That is also the reason why they had not been noticed for all these centuries. Even on the international space station ISS (Fig. 10.7) the effect is still tiny. Fig. 10.7: The ISS moves relative to the earth at about 7700m / s. Even so, the effect of time stretching is still absurdly tiny. v Object tr / tb 130 km / h car 1.00000000000001 = 1 + 10 –14 900 km / h airplane 1.00000000000035 = 1 + 3.5 · 10 –13 7.7 km / s ISS 1.0000000003294 = 1 + 3 , 3 · 10 -10 0.1 c 1.0050 0.5 c 1.1547 0.995 c muons in the atmosphere (Section 41.4) ≈ 10 0.99942 c muons at CERN (1959) 29.3653 0.999999991 c Protons at CERN (2012) ≈ 7500 Tab.10.1: Time expansion at different speeds 0.6 cc 1.1 ctb = tr √ _______ 1 - (0.6 c) 2 _____ c 2 tb = tr 0.8 tb = tr √ ____ 1 - c 2 __ c 2 tb = tr · 0 tb = tr √ _______ 1 - (1.1 c) 2 _____ c 2 tb = tr · √ ____ –0.12 Tab. 10.2: Graphical and mathematical representation of the Time stretching: The middle and right representation are hypothetical because c cannot be reached or exceeded. At faster than light speed, the equation provides a complex solution and the flash of light could not keep up with the clock. This can be interpreted in such a way that time then runs backwards. Today we are able to prove this time expansion (Section 10.3). However, Einstein had to wait more than 30 years for experimental confirmation. However, he never doubted his theory for a second. What would happen if a light clock moved at the speed of light (F3)? The flash of light could never reach the top. From our point of view, time would stand still (see Table 10.2). No object can ever reach the speed of light !!! But there are particles that always move at the speed of light, such as photons. From our point of view, these therefore do not age and therefore cannot disintegrate (F4). The special theory of relativity prohibits objects from reaching or exceeding the speed of light. However, it does not prevent that there could be objects that always move faster than light (F6). These hypothetical particles are called tachyons. You would eventually move backwards in time. Physicists consider the probability that they really exist to be very low. Summary Material objects can never reach or exceed c. Photons always move with c. The hypothetical and faster than light tachyons would be compatible with the special theory of relativity, but it is very unlikely that they really exist. 10.3 Anton and Albert The twin paradox In this section we will give further thought to time dilation. You hear of experimental evidence and the famous twin paradox. There are still a few important questions to be answered regarding time stretching. How is it when you meet another spaceship in space (F8)? From your point of view, time passes more slowly in the other ship, but only from your point of view. From the point of view of the other pilot, his own time runs as usual. Remember the Z What is half-life? Read in chap. 15.2. Imagine that you encounter another spaceship with your spaceship in space. You observe that time passes more slowly in the other ship. Does the other notice anything? Does everything happen noticeably in slow motion for him? And what does the other say about you? Shouldn't he, conversely, say of you that your clock runs slower? Who is right? F7 F8 For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv
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