Can dendrobium orchids withstand direct sunlight
What orchids don't like. How to extend the life of an orchid bouquet
Orchid is a tropical flower, but it can also withstand our climate. Understanding what orchids love is important for flower development. The sun or shade of an orchid is an important part of its bloom.
Orchids have many varieties, each of which prefers different living conditions. There are flowers that prefer the rays of the sun and there are flowers that are suitable for shade development. Sunlight is important for orchids such as:
For orchids with pseudo pears, sun rays are less in demand. And species like Phalaenopsis and Ludisia tolerate shade well, but even they need good lighting at some point. The lack of light will stop the plant from blooming and develop the power to grow leaves.
Backlight and shading rules
Almost every orchid loves the light, but a shadow must be created on hot days. Direct sunlight damages the flower. To do this, use a translucent fabric.
Particularly sensitive species that need sunlight make the background lighting from special UV lamps. Such lights are used for a period of time.
Direct sunlight will destroy the plant, but many species need it in daylight. From the excess of light on the plant, it is best to choose the most suitable place. Those flowers that prefer shade are put on the windowsill. They can be in a different location. And the plant that loves the sun is right on the windowsill.
Suitable watering and temperature conditions are also required for the full development of the plant.
Some species of this plant have a root system that grows on the surface. Thanks to this, the flower absorbs moisture from the air. That said, it doesn't require too much watering as it can rot the roots. The water is warmed to room temperature before pouring.
Temperature is also important for orchids. She feels good at an average temperature of 20 ° C to 25 ° C during the day and 13-19 ° C at night. Permissible temperature difference 5 °. Too low a temperature will not allow the flower to grow in strength, and too high a temperature will dry out the root system.
The plant is replenished at regular intervals: 2 times a month, in winter once a month. Use pine bark, crushed cones and moss for feeding. Or buy ready-made fertilizers from specialist retailers.
Diseases and pests
Caring for the flower needs a tremor, otherwise the plant will get sick or pests will begin.
A disease or a pest can be recognized by the condition of the leaves on the flower. For example, the lack of light causes the leaves on the flower to weaken and stretch, forming a pointed shape. After such changes, the leaves and flowers and the color of the petals fade. However, the excessive direct sunlight will burn the plant. It looks like a yellow spot on the leaves. Petals can get the same burns. Then the indoor flower begins to dry out and the risk of pests increases.For the first time I saw real orchids in South Korea, where I was on a business trip that was in no way related to plants. On weekdays I did business conscientiously and on weekends I went on trips to the mountains, the fish market, and flower wholesalers and retailers.
At that time I got an unforgettable experience. There were tiny orchids on the market that easily fit in the palm of your hand and giants over the human size. I spent most of the day there and was able to talk to many experts who had great experience in growing orchids properly. Of course, I didn't remember all the wisdom, but I learned a lot of new and useful things.
Then they sent me overseas on other business trips, and I always tried to bring a plant or two from them. I remember once in a hotel, in a sink full of water, I left the maids with a series of unusually beautiful stems cut from orchids. It was a shame to part with them, but they were too big to take two flights with one transfer in Amsterdam.
Of course I had already bought several plants in flower shops or at the bird market. But at that time - around 20 years ago - very few knew what to do so that the orchids not only survived in the usual nine-story prefabricated building, but also delighted the hosts with a bloom in the next season.
Of course there were lovers in our country who already professionally propagated and grown these wonderful flowers, but try to find them! The internet was still a curiosity and books with practical advice are very rare. So many enthusiastic orchids had to learn everything from their own experience, sometimes not entirely successfully.
When I was swept away by orchids, I was convinced that for this exotic cultivation you would need at least a huge greenhouse that takes up half the tiny Soviet apartment and a greenhouse that is equipped with super-automatic equipment. And ideally, at least one Timiryazev Academy graduate should take care of them. At that time there was such a mistake everywhere. In addition, many people today consider orchids to be mysterious and almost unearthly plants.
Of course, everything is completely wrong, but a few simple tips for starting orchids will never be redundant. Make a reservation right away that all of these tips are suitable for epiphytic orchids i.e. H. grow on trees. Of course, orchids grow in the ground (terrestrial or ground), but we'll talk about this another time.
Always buy orchids only where you have already bought something good or where professionals work. Always check the condition of the roots - you only need plants with developed, resilient white or light green roots with no signs of rot.
The ideal option is when the orchid's roots are open and freely accessible, and most of them are outside the pot, usually in the top. This is quite normal for epiphytes, as they naturally grow on trees and the roots hanging from all sides are a sign of a healthy and well-developed plant. Because of this, you shouldn't try to push all the roots back into the pot, just break them, which can lead to infection.
In the grower's greenhouse, orchids usually grow in small white or clear plastic pots with vents on the bottom. Transparent containers are required to allow daylight to penetrate the roots, as in some species they also produce chlorophyll, and openings are required to allow fresh air to get to the roots and ventilate them as it does in nature. Residual water flows through the same holes during irrigation and excess moisture evaporates quickly enough.
It is clear that such dishes are externally unattractive. To give the plants a marketable look, retailers often transplant orchids into beautiful ceramic pots or dishes. Sometimes they unwittingly try to shove fragile roots firmly into it and slide more sphagnum or coconut bark on top to cover the wreckage. Sometimes this is done to retain moisture during long-term transportation.
An inexperienced buyer usually does not know that there may be injured or broken orchid roots under the moss. Such misunderstandings are particularly common with the Phalaenopsis, as its roots are fleshy and very fragile. The happy owner of an orchid begins to diligently water the newly purchased plant, unaware that a breeding ground for bacteria and rot is forming under the damp moss. In a couple of weeks, such an orchid can lose all its roots, and it is very dangerous. Therefore, it is better to buy new plants in transparent plastic pots, through the walls of which you can assess the condition of the roots.
The number of orchids is huge. Among them there are species that have to be kept warm at all times, the so-called evergreens. In summer they prefer 20-28 ° C during the day, and in winter -20-22 ° C, with nighttime temperatures dropping to 15-18 ° C throughout the year, but no less! Lower temperatures quickly destroy the entire root system! It goes without saying that the temperature of 22-24 ° C in the room by no means means that it will be the same on the windowsill. Depending on the design, quality and manufacturing technology of the window, the temperature can only reach 10 ° C, sometimes even lower, especially if the window is open all the time. Therefore, it is better to put a household thermometer on the windowsill in winter and put heat-insulating gaskets or pallets under the pots. These can be the simplest plastic pallets that create an air gap and raise the pots to a height of at least 4 to 5 mm from the surface of the windowsill, especially if it is made of concrete.
However, there are orchids that prefer coolness. In summer they like the temperature of 15–20 ° C with a possible short-term increase over several days to 28 ° C and an obligatory decrease in nighttime temperatures by 3–5 ° C throughout the year. In winter, day should be 10-14 ° C. From the end of April to the end of September, such orchids feel at home in glassed-in loggias or in the garden outdoors, as day and night temperatures fluctuate at the right intervals. You can leave them on the street, but only if the night is not below 5 ° C.
As you can see, it is very difficult to make recommendations about the content of all types of orchids. A whole magazine is not enough for this. Therefore, when buying a plant, try to at least describe the necessary temperature conditions and, even better, keep the original label on what brief care instructions.
Trusting a short note on the label is not worth much because of its brevity. You can now easily find the information you need in specialist literature or on thematic websites and forums on the Internet.
Most orchids are photophilic and require constant air circulation. They also prefer scattered light without direct midday sunlight. Since orchids, which are described in the article, grow on the trunks or in the treetops, they need the appropriate lighting - penumbra or light-moving penumbra. In an apartment, a place is suitable for them, either on the windowsill (if you do not have the south side) or next to the window, especially in May and summer, when the windows face south, south-east or south-west.
Most epiphytic orchids usually bloom for quite a long time, and each flower lasts for at least 1-2 weeks on average. In Phalaenopsis and some other species, the flowering time of each individual flower is sometimes 5 to 6 weeks and the entire brush is 2 to 3.5 months. Sometimes a flower stalk can please you for up to six months! At the same time, the stem of most epiphytic orchids only begins to grow when the temperature difference between day and night is at least 10 ° C. Oddly enough, in an ordinary Russian apartment, such a difference happens either in the end of September-October or in May, when the central heating was not yet turned on or was already turned off, and suddenly it became colder in the street. So it's not surprising that many orchids bloom from November to December and bloom for most of the winter! It happens that the stalk reacts to the May cold, and some specimens that are in hibernation or at rest bloom again in late June to July.
In addition, stems of orchids like Phalaenopsis should not always be cut off completely. It is better to shorten it to the first well-developed but still sleeping kidney. If there are two stems, both must be shortened. It happens that one of the stems dries out over time, and the second grows again after a while, and sometimes they grow one after the other or both at the same time. It all depends on the degree of development of the mother shrub.
If one of the stems has dried out, it must be removed at the base. It often happens that, along with the old stem, a new or several children begin to develop on one of the stems, i.e. from the point of growth, not only small lateral stems appear, but also leaves with roots. In this case, one of two things: either your orchid is very good on your balcony or windowsill, or there is some problem with the roots, for example, they have been wetted or hypothermic for a long time and now they have started to die.
For growing orchids, it is recommended to use a substrate based on pine bark, as there is no tar residue on it. Although we find in nature that an orchid is incapable of choosing a tree for itself, all the more so without signs of gum disease ...
You can add some peat and vermiculite to the substrate. I sometimes mix a little chopped up moss from sphagnum, coconut fiber and charcoal, and sometimes just the usual well-washed and fairly large expanded clay. It all depends on the specific type of orchids and the size of the plastic pot they will grow in.
I try to transplant most orchids in the spring or summer after flowering, those that bloom in autumn with the start of young shoots growing. Different orchids also reproduce in different ways. As a rule, most of the problems at home are the phalaenopsis, if they don't have children on stems. They can be propagated by dividing the trunk in two, and each of them must have well-developed roots. In this case, the lower part, which is usually left without leaves, quickly gives one or two new growth points.
Dendrobia, Cattley, and Oncidia usually reproduce and divide large specimens into parts. This is better when new growths and roots appear. Most species should be divided so that each division consists of at least three pseudobulbs or growths. This is important because otherwise, especially if you have no particular experience, smaller delenki can die.
Many species reproduce well by offspring in the air. They are separated and planted in pots after rooting. Such orchids grow quickly after planting and sometimes bloom for the first year. Old faded stems can be cut into pieces between the nodes and placed on damp sphagnum, perlite, or a mixture of fine bark and sand to stimulate child development.
Remember - all skills come with experience. And he, I hope you will definitely show up in the near future. Don't be afraid to experiment. You will have success!
If you want to make an original gift, you should pay attention to a surprisingly beautiful and very delicate plant: it grows in a flower pot. A person who accepts this flower as a gift should familiarize themselves with the basic rules of orchid care. Ignoring it can lead to disease and in some cases provoke the early death of the plant.
In order not to make a mistake when choosing an orchid and to ensure that the selected plant will be a feast for the eyes for a long time, it is important to know what signs indicate the presence of acquired diseases. This includes experts:
Large power outages on the plant's leaves or bulbs indicate a bacterial infection. Only minor sheet errors are permitted.
When buying orchids with bulbs, you need to carefully examine them and determine which one appeared last. If the growth is significantly different from others, or if there is a slight reduction in the size of new bulbs, it is not recommended that you buy the plant.
Sellers should inquire about the conditions under which the asset was kept before it was offered for sale. The best option is if the orchid grows in a special environment, where good lighting and the necessary humidity are preserved.
If the plant has a sharply curved trunk, it can be concluded that air access has been restricted for a long time.
If the foliage of the orchid has noticeably yellowed, the flower lacks the necessary light and mineral substances.
When a brown border appeared on the edges of the leaves, we can conclude that the air in the room where the orchid grew was not humid enough.
Using these simple rules, you can choose a healthy plant that will delight its owners for a long time, provided it is properly cared for.
In order to maintain a comfortable environment that will ensure good growth and flowering of the orchids, it is important to monitor the following:
- for ensuring the good;
- for proper irrigation;
- choosing the right soil;
- for timely transplant and plant nutrition.
Each of these conditions are very important to the proper maintenance of this exquisite plant.
Adequate exposure to light is a critical factor in the appearance of new flowers and maintaining the flowering period. If the light from the orchid is insufficient, the optimal vegetation cycle will be disturbed. If the light is too intense, the orchid will burn out.
Characteristic signs of insufficient light are dark spots on the leaves.
The yellowing of the leaves and the brown spots on them suggest that the lighting is too strong.
When choosing a place to grow this plant, window sills on the sunny side should be avoided. An ideal place for a well-blooming orchid is a glazed loggia to the west or east. The loggia on the south side must be darkened with special curtains to preserve the plant, and on the north side of the room the plant will not bloom and may even die.
Experts are sure that due to the appearance of moisture build-up in the soil and the effect on its roots of salts dissolved in the casting liquid, the orchid will begin to die. It should be noted that this potted plant tolerates soil drying out better than excessive moisture.
The following factors usually affect the frequency of watering:
- average room temperature;
- the frequency of sunlight;
- flower pot size;
- growing season.
To determine the frequency of hydration, it makes sense to consider each of the factors listed.
A lack of moisture contributes to the appearance of pseudobulbs and dry leaves. With excessive moisture, the process of rotting of the roots of the orchid begins, which soon affects the condition of the entire plant.
Place the pot with the plant in a small container with water at room temperature for a quarter of an hour.
Put the plant in the bathroom and water it intensely with a little warm water in the shower. Make sure the substrate is completely wet and that excess water comes out of the special holes at the bottom of the pot.
With both methods, the pot should be placed on a small grid after watering so that excess moisture can melt completely.
Probably the most exciting thing for home gardeners is still growing orchids. But success in this matter is unfortunately not for everyone. And one of the deciding factors is the lighting. Many of us fail either at watering the orchid or choosing the right lighting. Today we are going to tell you what type of lighting to choose so that your lighting is always healthy and pleases you with regular bloom.
Oncidum Orchid prefers shade
Many people think that orchids need to get as much light as possible and bright light is only harmful to an orchid. To some extent, an orchid can protect itself from excessive sunlight. However, if the light is too bright, the damage is obvious and the plant "burns". A lack of light can also affect slow growth and the cessation of flowering.
Understand if there is enough light on the leaves for an orchid. The leaves of a healthy orchid should be light green if the leaves are dark - the plant is not getting enough light; if they are yellow-green or a reddish tint - the orchid is getting too much light.
Paphiopedilum orchid is afraid of bright light
In general, orchids can be divided into two groups based on their lighting needs: the first group are orchids that love low light (these are orchids like Paphiopedilum, Oncidum, and Phalaenopsis), and the second group are orchids that love a lot of light (and Vanda)
Photophilic orchid Vanda
Some gardeners successfully grow orchids under regular fluorescent lighting. We recommend the use of lamps in the “cold white” - “warm white” range. Cool white lamps produce more waves in the blue part of the visible spectrum, which helps the plants to grow, and warm white fluorescent lamps produce red waves which are necessary for blooming.
Some orchid enthusiasts add incandescent bulbs to fluorescent lighting to create a red spectrum, but incandescent bulbs give too much light and risk burning plants. When the plants are grown, the lamp must be raised to avoid burns.
The most popular lamps orchid lovers buy are metal halide (MH) and high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. For your information, growing orchids for commercial purposes uses high-intensity gas discharge lamps (HID) - these lamps replace daylight and provide all of the light spectrum plants need for photosynthesis.
As far as I know, HPS lamps are more energy efficient than MH lamps, and the light they emit is orange-yellow, which can change the shade of flowers and leaves. MH emits blue light which is ideal for orchids to grow, and this light is pleasing to the eye. When the plant starts to bloom, you can switch the lamp to HPS because orchids need a red spectral range during flowering. I replace the lamps with high pressure sodium lamps without changing the ballast.
I will share my experience: I have a 30 x 45 cm (12 x 18 cm) patch for orchids, I have installed 600 W metal halide lamps, each of which covers an area of 15 x 15 cm (6 x 6 cm) . When turning on the lights for your plants, make sure that the daylight hours do not exceed 14 hours per day. I managed to grow great orchids with the help of HPS and MH lamps and you will not be able to do that if you follow the rules for them.
Translation: Anna Zhurbenko
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Garden center "your garden"
A person who has first come across orchid cultivation can easily be confused by conflicting advice regarding lighting: some sources say tropical beauties need plenty of sun, while others warn of their destructive power. Does the orchid love the sun?
In apartments, we grow hybrid plants that are artificially derived from single-variety orchids. Hybrids can easily adapt to our conditions, but you still need to consider the climatic conditions in which their wild relatives grow. As for lighting, you should know that orchids grow in the wild:
- on the ground under the guise of tall plants;
- on the trunks or branches of trees hiding between their leaves;
- on rocks and high stones without knowing the shadow.
Orchids that are used to the top of the rocks need much more sun than those that receive the sun's rays and penetrate through the thickness of the canopy. In addition, tropical and subtropical species are used to 12 hours of daylight. Plants of moderate latitudes reconcile with a shorter period of intense lighting.
Shadow-loving orchids are content with a light of 5,000-15,000 lux. They can be kept under artificial light with a lack of sunlight. Moderate light orchids, which require 15,000 to 30,000 lux for best growth, can get used to the same regime.
These are the most undemanding species, including Phalaenopsis, Venus slippers, Hemaria, Anectochylus. You will feel great on the east, west, and even north windows. Most of the time they have enough sunlight in the summer, but in winter they need to be lit with grow lights or 60W fluorescent lights to give the plants daylight from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.
Miltoniopsis can be grown in partial shade, the colorful flowers of which open in spring and summer, and in some varieties all year round.
Odontoglossums like penumbra. Different varieties choose spring / summer or autumn / winter for flowering. They form panicles with numerous spotty colors: yellow-brown, white-red, light or pastel tones.
Paphiopedilums, or Venus slippers, can bloom all year round. All you have is a beautiful flower on a stem. The color is arbitrary: white, red, yellow, pink, green (plain, striped, blotchy).
The group of unpretentious orchids includes Phalaenopsis and delights with an amazing variety of colors. Keeping them hibernating is advisable, but some plants may ignore them and continue to form new stems.
These plants do not need to be placed on the windowsill of the south window, it is better to move them inland or cover the glass with a cloth.
Light-loving species (for example, dendrobias, some wands, oncidia) are much more difficult to create. You will need coverage of 30,000 to 40,000 lux. The daylight hours should be 12-14 hours, although Cattleya will stop blooming if the sun shines for more than 13 hours. These are the most capricious orchids, it is more difficult for them to create optimal conditions in our apartments. As a rule, they are grown not by beginners, but by experienced orchid lovers.
No matter how much the flower loves sunlight, direct rays in summer not only unnecessarily raise the air temperature by heating the window frame, glass, pot, and leaves of the plant, but they can also burn. That is why in summer you have to cover the glass with a cloth, grille or blinds for another 12 to 18 hours on the south window sill.
Cymbidiums that bloom brightly at different times of the year love a lot of light; white, yellow, pink, and red cattleya; fragrant stangopei and combed colegin; bright maxillaria; Miniature cyclies, coelogins. Its flowers are magnificent and the aromas are fascinating.
Video "The right orchid care"
Check out this video to learn how to properly care for orchids at home.
Signs of improper lighting
Improperly organized lighting is sure to affect the appearance of the plant. The grower must be careful to quickly set the light mode.
An excess of light changes the color of the green leaves to reddish or brown. There may be pink, purple, or red pigmentation, persistent dark spots, or just a reddish-brown burn. In winter this can destroy the plant.
With insufficient lighting, the leaves become soft and take on a bluish tint. New leaves unusually elongate, stretch into a source of light, become soft and loose. Pseudobulbs can be wrongly long. If there is little light for a long time, the plant will stop growing.
For most members of the orchid family, dormancy requires lowering the air temperature, but not reducing the hours of daylight or the intensity of light.
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