What are the salient features of poetry

The main features of Italian baroque poetry based on two sonnets from this period and a comparison with a third from the previous period


1 Introduction

2. The poems
2.1. Claudio Achillini La mina
2.2. Pier Francesco Paoli Dinanzi a un ospedale

3. The baroque features of the poems
3.1. The hyperfunction of the ils
3.1.1. The metaphora continuata of Achillini
3.1.2. The mixture in the nice Paolis
3.1.3. One metaphor - two worlds: Petrarch and Achillini Francesco Petrarch Rerum vulgarium fragmenta The different ways of dealing with metaphors The baroque cult of metaphors
3.1.4. The nn: display of splendor
3.1.5. Addendum: Craftsmanship and artistic skill
3.2. Novelty and modernity
3.2.1. mixing and mixing of the planes
3.2.2. The headings: New Topics; The 'object seal'
3.2.3. The invention and editing of kundärcode
3.2.4. The relationship to tradition
3.2.5. modernity
3.3. The nonexistent relation to reality
3.4. The ideal of finzione and the hein of literary freedom
3.4.1. The gift of free invention
3.4.2. Objectivism, freedom and its ambivalence
3.5. Extremes, opposites and constant change
3.6. Riddles, punchlines, fallacies
3.6.1. Achillini's closing point
3.6.2. The closing point of Paolis
3.6.3. Surprise and mystery as the main goals of Baroque poetry
3.7. Summary of what has been said under the term of acutezza, the concept of concetto
3.8. Alignment of through acutezza embossed seal on the goal of entertainment

4th conclusion

5. Literature used

1 Introduction

Dealing with Italian baroque literature does not seem worthwhile at first. But on closer inspection, it also seems to have its advantages. So through the comprehensive appreciation of knowledge and thought that is expressed in it. In view of the fact that there is already no benchmark for literature valid across epochs, we should perhaps forego a hasty rejection of this literature according to our current ideas of what it has to achieve and instead use this not directly literary yet sympathetic trait of the epoch Take the opportunity to deal with it anyway. But to do this, the rules by which it works must first be known. The aim of this work is to show the special features of baroque literature on the basis of two poems. Neither of the two comes from the father of the poetry of the time, Giambattista Marino, and they promise all the more information about 'ordinary' Baroque poetry, i.e. the basis on which unitary masterpieces are created. It is about the two sonnets La mina by Claudio Achillini and Dinanzi a un ospedale by Pier Francesco Paoli.

2. The poems

2.1. Claudio Achillini La mina

Entra per nera e sconosciuta bocca 1

e in sotto al muro ostil duce tiranno

e con industre e vigilato affanno

v’aggiusta un muto foco e poi ne sbocca.

Ma non sì tosto una favilla tocca 5

l’incendioso e prigioniero inganno,

che in un solo momento, eterno al danno,

crepa il suol, tuona il ciel, vola la ròcca.

Portai del cor nel più secreto loco

semi di foco e ne cercai lo scampo 10

per non esser d’un cieco e scherzo e gioco.

La favilla d’un bacio accese il lampo

in su la mina e publicossi il foco;

ed ecco Amor trionfatore in campo.[1] 14

2.2. Pier Francesco Paoli Dinanzi a un ospedale

Qui, dove giace in un turba languente 1

or che’l Sol men benigno il terren fiede

veggio mostrar costei pomposamente

la sua beltà, ch’ogni beltade eccede.

So forse talor, vaga e ridente 5

fuor da la reggia sua mover il piede

là per le vie de la dannata gente,

la regina Proserpina si vede.

Già non le scalda il sen pietoso ardore:

troppo ha l’affetto a la fierezza esperto 10

nel mirar le ferite del mio core.

Ben lieto mor chi qui di morte è or certo,

che mira, ad onta del mortale orrore,

in quel bel volto il paradiso aperto.[2] 14

3. The baroque features of the poems

3.1. The hyperfunction of style

One of the most salient features of Italian Baroque poetry is the hyperfunction of style, i. H. the preponderance of the linguistic and stylistic means available at the level of expression over the content to be conveyed, and the importance attached to the former, but not to the latter, in short, that the type of presentation is more important than what is presented should.[3] In the examples presented here, almost every detail is determined by this hyperfunction of style. A complex argumentation is often necessary in detail in order to prove that this particular detail is there for linguistic or stylistic reasons and does not fulfill any substantive function worth mentioning. For reasons of space, therefore, not all of the available material can be examined here. But it will suffice - and this is quite possible and will be done in the following - to show that the macrostructure of both poems is not determined by the representation of a content, but by basic ideas from the linguistic and stylistic area.

3.1.1. The metaphora continuata of Achillini

At first glance it seems clear that the subject of Achillini's poem is “la mina”, if only because that is the title of the text. From the ninth line onwards, however, the events reported in the description of the installation of a mine and the consequences that would occur if it were ignited are successively equated with the chain of events that are indicated by a "bacio" (line 12) within the " cor ”of the person concerned (line 9) should have been triggered, it is clear that the mine and what happens to it and through it, only as a metaphor for the process of the innamoramento stand, which is thus the actual subject of the poem.[4]

The metaphor - also in its expanded, naturalized and continued form as shown here as metaphora continuata present - is a stylistic device. It dominates the whole poem, because it not only gives the poem the title and not only the first two stanzas are exclusively dedicated to her, it is also predominant in the two following stanzas, insofar as their function as a mere metaphor is the first two stanzas were not clearly recognizable when the puzzle they represented is resolved from the third stanza, and finally the final stanza at the latest largely returns to its pictorial level and ends on the pictorial level extended to the general war theme.[5] Which at least makes it clear that the metaphora continuata, their dissolution and continuation to the end essentially determine the macrostructure of the poem.

Nonetheless, it is possible that the metaphor could fulfill content-related functions. In addition, it makes sense to take a closer look at the conveyed content. The content-related core statement can be summarized without fear of contradiction in the sentence "Cupid has conquered my heart", which can be simplified to "I fell in love" in the absence of any transferred language. This indicates a factual event[6] alluded to, what is portrayed in the poem is supposed to have happened in reality and not only provided the occasion, but also the subject and main subject of this poem. In doing so, however, it fails to concretize this event in any way. What is particularly important here is that it is deliberately avoided to even mention the second person who inevitably has to play a central role in this event, the woman with whom he fell in love. It requires a great deal of artistry, coupled with a conscious intention, not even in the form of being contained in a 3rd person verb. Sg. To be mentioned. The only reference to them is contained in the word "bacio" (line 12), which someone must have given. But even this “bacio” appears only as a genitive dependent on a “favilla”, which serves to ignite the mine on the image level and thereby give Cupid the victory. Achillini can hardly tell the reader more clearly that it is irrelevant for the understanding of this poem that he fell in love with a certain woman, which in the end is the whole subject of the innamoramento robs all meaning. This is confirmed by many other elements in the poem, only two of which can be briefly touched upon. One is the statement "ne cercai lo scampo / per non esser d’un cieco e scherzo e gioco" (lines 10 - 11), with which only the narrator of the 1st person Sg. His level of motivation with regard to that innamoramento portrays. The fact that someone who has just fallen in love has nothing more to say about their feelings than that they would have liked to escape the ridicule and scorn in the wake of falling in love is a clear indication of the author that the event, in terms of its depth and significance, is actually not worth mentioning would have been. In the same direction, “incendioso” in the sixth line means that, when translated from the picture, it means that the author is “easily flammable” in love affairs, that is, his innamoramenti are apparently never characterized by duration and depth. In many ways, then, Achillini tells his reader that what is represented - that innamoramento - is of little importance, which inevitably means that it is the type of presentation that mattered to him.

If we ask directly about the content-related function of a metaphor, we come to a similar result. The content-related function of a metaphor would be to illustrate what has been said or to present it more clearly. What immediately strikes you is that there is hardly a worse conceivable metaphor for a innamoramento could give as a mine. In addition, this metaphor is extended through its naturalization to the subject area of ​​war, that of the subject area of ​​love, to which one innamoramento counts, is diametrically opposed. That it is not about illustration at all becomes clear in line 8 - after the metaphor and its extension were chosen “wrong” from the start, it should not be any different - because whatever the consequences of a kiss are thinks, it is hardly conceivable that they can be found vividly described by “crepa il suol, tuona il ciel, vola la ròcca”, at least if the last link “vola la ròcca” clearly places the events in the bloody and violent context of a battle . Whatever the purpose of this shifting of a silent, internal process to the level of a loud, bloody, external process, it does not have the function of illustrating it. Since it has already been shown that the event should be of no great importance for the person concerned anyway, it even seems downright absurd to set "heaven and earth" in motion for its consequences, that is, line 8, in which the description of the mine and what is happening around them culminates in the first two stanzas, has no substantive function with regard to the innamoramentos, regarding the main subject of the poem.

It was thus established that the mine metaphor, its continuation, naturalization and extension to the war theme largely fulfills no content-related function, but at the same time essentially determines the overall structure of the poem. In other words, the poem is generally determined by the use of stylistic means that have no function in relation to its subject, it is an overfunction of the style.

3.1.2. The mix of styles in the Paolis sonnet

Pier Francesco Paoli's poem is of a different nature. The topic is clearly mentioned in the first stanza, a "beltà, ch’ogni beltade eccede" (line 4) is an object that has often been dealt with in a sonnet before.[7] What immediately catches the eye with a cursory reading of this poem is that all four stanzas, poems, seem to be taken from very different types. The first stanza is at least formally sober. The place in the first line ("Qui, dove [...]") is followed by the time ("or che [...]"), then the object ("beltà, ch'ogni beltade eccede"), the the author observed ("veggio") and thus became the subject of one of his poems. The second stanza belongs to the myth. The third stanza appears to be taken from the classic love poetry, specifically of a certain type, the lover's complaint (line 11: “le ferite del mio core”) about his cold-heartedness donna (Line 9: "non le scalda il sen pietoso ardore").[8] In it, metaphors of classic style pile up (the two passages mentioned are metaphorical)[9] and in these verses there is a particularly strong deviation from the usual word order (especially in line 10: "ha l’affetto a la fierezza esperto"). The last stanza seems to have mainly the theme of death, as early as line 12 (“Ben lieto mor chi qui di morte è or certo”). This topic seems to be dealt with in a religious context, such as choice of words (line 13: "mortale", line 14: "paradiso") and formulas (line 12: "Ben lieto mor", lines 13-14: " mira [...] il paradiso aperto ”). The stanza thus appears to have been taken from religious poetry that deals with death.

This change between actually thematically bound language styles[10] Of course, it is deeply unsettling about the actual subject of the poem. Although it is clearly mentioned in the first stanza, the "beltà" of a certain, more precisely not described lady, the reader has to make the reference himself in the second stanza, since Persephone is certainly not the first choice as a representative for beauty in the offer of the myth[11] is, albeit quite suitable. In the third stanza, however, the subject of the “beltà” is not mentioned at all, except as an undisclosed cause of the poet's wretched condition (line 11: “le ferite del mio core”), which can hardly be traced back to anything other than one extraordinary beauty, which of course is paired with compassion (line 9) and arrogance (line 10).[12] The clarity that the actual theme remained the “beltà” is finally restored only in the last verse. The actual core message of the final note is that your face must appear to a dying person like the opened paradise. That this has to be so is not religiously motivated, that is already ruled out by the fact that the lady was denied basic Christian virtues in lines 9-11, but can only be in the degree of her beauty “ch'ogni beltade eccede”, with which we are in Closing verse with “bel volto” returned to the starting point.

The different stanzas seem to be taken from different poems, namely poems that are ultimately determined by certain content: the depiction of a mythological event, the complaint of a lover in vain, the contemplation of death from a religious point of view. But these objects are of little or no interest. In the case of the mythological theme of the second stanza, this is still quite obvious and also obvious. The introductory “so” clearly shows that the myth is only used here as a comparison. On the contrary, it must be shown here that it does not do this in order to restore its independence as a representation of mythical events. That part of the myth because of which Persephone also emerged as a personification of beauty[13] suitable, is neither emphasized nor mentioned nor even hinted at here,[14] it is up to the reader to add this from the common cultural knowledge. The reader will make this addition because he was prepared by means of the first part and the comparison part “so” that he had to interpret Persephone as a symbol of beauty. The second stanza does not serve to illuminate the first, but, conversely, the second stanza requires the first to be interpreted. Thus it stands independently as a mythological narrative, or at least it does not fulfill any serving function in relation to the main theme of the poem given in the first stanza. At the same time, however, it is completely devalued by “forse talor” (line 5) as an independent mythical narrative, because a mythological event that cannot itself be secured as such is probably not worth an independent presentation. So the topic is given, but at the same time obviously without interest.

As far as the third stanza is concerned, the secondary theme touched on here, since it is not referred to either before or after, can have little weight for the poem as a whole.[15] On the other hand, she has some linguistic features that she even expressly isolate from the rest of the poem. First of all, there is the large accumulation of metaphors, which, surprisingly, otherwise play a subordinate role in the poem.In fact, it is metaphors like “scalda”, “sen”, “pietoso ardore”, “ferite del mio core”, which are all so omnipresent in traditional vernacular poetry that it seems that their accumulation should lead to the apparent 'removal 'This stanza should be emphasized from a classical representative of this genre.[16] Also, the deviation from normal language usage in the sentence order is hardly anywhere else in this sonnet as high as in the middle part of this stanza (“troppo ha l'affetto a la fierezza esperto”), a deviation that, among other things, is very artificial Usage of language as it corresponds to the elevated forms of love poetry.[17] It should therefore be noted that the stanza contains some peculiarities on a linguistic level that allow it to be clearly linked to the classic love lament, although there is reason to doubt that this secondary topic is of particular importance.

As far as the last stanza is concerned, it shows what needs to be shown here most obviously and thus confirms a corresponding interpretation of the other stanzas, if what has already been shown may not suffice. It has already been shown that the stanza was characterized by lexemes and formulations - i.e. in the linguistic area - as a religious poem, it has also been shown that this in no way arises from its actual subject, which is the price of very earthly beauty, which for that reason alone can be meant because its owner was by no means portrayed as a saint in the third stanza. In the end, all three stanzas (lines 5-14) did not adopt the content of certain types of poems with a defined content, but only their linguistic and stylistic means, which our author is obviously more interested in than the objects that they help could be expressed. Conversely, it is now also clear that the actual subject matter of the poem is of little interest, since the appropriate linguistic and stylistic means were not chosen to represent it. The real attraction of the poem does not consist in its subject matter, but in the fact that it was depicted with the most varied of linguistic and stylistic means that were not appropriate to it, i.e. in language and style. So there was a similar result for both poems, which can be summarized under the heading of hyperfunction of style. It must be stated that the only common importance is that of the stylistic and linguistic means before the theme of the sonnets, not what they are or the way in which they were used.

3.1.3. One metaphor - two worlds: Petrarch and Achillini

For stylistic and linguistic reasons, the mine metaphor largely determines the macrostructure of the poem Achillinis. Petrarch uses a very similar metaphor in a sonnet with the same content - one innamoramentos -, namely in the sonnet "Quando mi vène inanzi il tempo e‘ l loco "(Rerum vulgarium fragmenta 175). A direct comparison is therefore advisable and will at least clarify the differences in the use of the stylistic devices typical of the epoch and, since Petrarch after the Petrarchism of the 16th century.[18] represent tradition to a high degree, also provide information about Achillini's handling of tradition, so that this poem as a benchmark and representative of tradition, although it is only mentioned for the first time for only one specific reason, will also accompany us in the further course of the work . Francesco Petrarca "Rerum vulgarium fragmenta" 175

Quando mi vène inanzi il tempo e ’l loco 1

Ov’i ’perdei me stesso, e’ l caro nodo

Ond’Amor di sua man m’avinse in modo

Che l’amar mi fe ’dolce, e’ l pianger gioco,

Solfo et ésca son tutto, e ‘l cor un foco 5

Da quei soavi spiriti, i quai semper odo,

Acceso dentro sí, ch’ardendo godo,

Et di ciò vivo, et d’altro mi cal poco.

Quel sol, che solo agli tatting mei resplende,

Co i vaghi raggi anchor indi mi scalda 10

A vespro tal qual era oggi per tempo;

Et cosí di lontan m’alluma e ’ncende,

Che la memoria ad ognor fresca et salda

Pure quell nodo mi mostra e ’l loco e’ l tempo.[19] 14 The different ways of dealing with metaphors

The metaphor that is important here in the Petrarcasonet is of course “solfo et ésca” in line 5. It is only one of many and is used directly to illustrate a process within the innamoramento. It fulfills its subordinate function in a text whole determined by its content. Quite different from Achillini, who for two verses leaves the reader in the dark about the fact that the mine is only a metaphor and is not itself the subject of the poem, which Petrarch already mentions in the second stanza. Achillini expands one metaphor through naturalization and expansion to the general war theme so far that it finally dominates the entire poem, so that the relationship between the stylistic device of the metaphor and the content that is to be represented with its help is compared to the traditional approach Petrarch is wrong. It is necessary to know such poems as Petrarch's in order to even guess the intended content behind the dominance of the stylistic level, without such knowledge one runs the risk of losing the few brief references to this innamoramento like “bacio” in line 12, misinterpreted as metaphors in the context of the representation of a mine and how it works. In short, the actual content of the Achillini poem arises from tradition and is called up from cultural knowledge through a few keywords, but is no longer even elaborated.Instead, a metaphor appears as a pseudo-object of the poem and is not used, but unfolds into an increasingly diverse one and a more colorful picture, in which more and more, a "ròcca" (line 8), a "duce" (line 2) etc., which is associated with the process of innamoramento at first or has little to do at all, is integrated. This is not only, but above all and first of all, the dominance and hyperfunction of style. The baroque cult of metaphors

Against this background is the metaphor cult of the baroque[20] to understand. Even a brief comparison of the Petrarca poem with the Paoli poem, the result of which is so clear that it does not have to be explained in detail, shows that the addiction to metaphors is not a privilege of the Baroque and its numerous use alone does not indicate an overfunction of the style, because Petrarch In the end, he certainly uses a lot more metaphors in this poem than Paoli (who for the reasons mentioned above, which are of a stylistic nature, has to use them sparingly except for one stanza). The special thing about the metaphor cult of the Baroque era is the way they were used. Petrarch uses a picture that is suitable due to the model of nature to briefly illustrate what is meant.[21] Achillini exploits the potential that lies in the metaphor by expanding it into a whole story with Cupid as the opposing general who storms a castle. As already shown in the example of the eighth line, which arises from this unfolding of the possibilities of a metaphor, it does not gain anything in terms of content, rather falsifies a realistic idea of ​​a conceivable actual one even on the level of the image innamoramento -Process. But he creates impressive images that give rise to further, hybrid metaphors and other pomp of style, like here the “tuona il ciel”, which of course only depicts the process of the explosion of the metaphor mine in the picture. This is symptomatic of a process that determines the whole poem that the metaphor is only the starting point for the formation of further linguistic and stylistic tricks that contribute little or nothing to the content, as can easily be shown with numerous other examples, but must be omitted here for reasons of space . So this is what Achillini finds useful in metaphor and what he values ​​so much that he formally elevates it to the subject of his poem, and it is obvious that it is precisely this that distinguishes Petrarch's 'metaphor cult' from Achillini's. It is the metaphor cult described in this way in the context of the hyperfunction of the style, which is typical of the baroque.[22]

3.1.4. The sense: display of magnificence

Of course, the baroque audience did not appreciate the overfunction of the style in the poems, or at least would not have formulated it that way. In the case of Achillini, this hyperfunction of the style means, as I said, that a whole narrative is developed around the mine metaphor without direct reference to the content of the poem, in which the mine metaphor is highly artistic - just note that the mine does not return until the penultimate verse after the heading is named immediately - a battle is described in which a general besieged and conquered an enemy castle, whereby - not in reality in the picture, so in the stylistic area - world-shattering things are said to have occurred, which among other things the attribute "eterno al danno ”and in the course of which“ crepa il suol, tuona il ciel ”, that is, the whole world that can be experienced, should be shaken. This is word ornament and, in view of the fact that it takes up almost the entire poem, excessive word ornament.[23] Since the content, as has already been shown, takes a back seat to it, or the meaning of the content is deliberately reduced outside the stylistic level, this magnificence is wanted for its own sake and the poem was - among other things - valued for its sake, while the The insignificance of the actual subject of the poem, which was borrowed from tradition, only formed the background against which the external ornamentation could stand out all the more brilliantly.[24]

3.1.5. Addendum: Craftsmanship and artistic skill

With Paoli, too, there is purely stylistic pomp. But he is of a different kind. Here it is above all his artistic ability that he proves by presenting a theme in four stanzas that seem to be taken from poems that would be dedicated to a completely different subject. The artistic ability that the baroque audience considered theirs ingegno or at least as part and expression of his ingegno would have admired.[25] As almost always, these admired artistic feats are based to a large extent on purely manual skill, which at the same time makes a very schematic procedure hidden under the surface a hallmark of baroque poetry.[26] This is particularly fascinating to see with Achillini. Unfortunately, its approach can only be briefly characterized here. They are conventional innamoramento Elements such as the secrecy of love or the concealment of the love relationship, the complete control of the lover through, above all, the donna, vigilance, the conceptual field of fire and flammability, the manifestation of love, mostly as an object of fear, the eternity of feeling and much more connected.[27] All of these elements can easily be found in Achillini: secrecy: "sconosciuta" (line 1), the relationship of control: "tiranno" (line 2), "prigioniero" (line 6), vigilance: "vigilato" (Line 3), fire: "favilla" (line 5, line 12), "foco" (line 4, line 10, line 13), "incendioso" (line 6), revealing: " publicossi il foco "(line 13), eternity:" eterno "(line 7). The secrecy does not refer to a concealment of the awakened love, as it would correspond to the convention, but to the installation of a mine under the city wall. For reasons of space, we cannot go into this further, as I said, but the verification of a similar procedure for all other of the examples given is just as easy as finding more. It should be noted that precisely the part of the expanded and naturalized Metaphora continuata Achillinis described in this way is reluctant to transfer it to what is meant. The fact that there is something like a mine in the human heart that would collapse all of its resistances when ignited is still acceptable, but that someone secretly attached it at any time makes no sense except in the expanded picture. Calling up conventional topics for purposes other than those intended on a purely linguistic level thus fulfills the function of concealing the weaknesses of the chosen metaphor in terms of content. Another example of the preponderance of language in the creation of baroque poems.

With Paoli not everything can be listed either, so it should suffice to show that he works through a conventional program step by step to describe his main theme, the “beltà”: It occurs “pomposamente” (line 3). It is primarily reflected in the eye of the beholder ("veggio" line 3, "si vede" line 8, "che mira" line 13), whose admiration is based on no other action or quality on your part than that it is present is or appears ("veggio mostrar" line 3, "mover il piede [...] si vede" line 6-8, "che mira ..." line 13). The beauty is first described in more detail in a conventional comparison (line 4: "ch'ogni beltade eccede"), with the usual predication ("vaga e ridente"), then follows the mythological comparison (lines 5 - 8: "Così [...] la regina Proserpina ”), which is not conventional in its present form, but as a typical element. The literary tradition sees beauty in its wearer often associated with arrogance, pride and cruelty; this conventional secondary theme is also taken up in the third stanza. If you reread the previous parts of the poem from this point of view, it is noticeable that this conventional secondary topic has already been mentioned several times. Prepared by “languente” in the first line, which in literature describes the lover's longing much more often than the hunger, weakness and misery of the lower class, the second line should not only be read as a time indication (which as such is much too vague, the So it has to have another function), but at least the main and conventionally associated secondary topic is heard in it, with “Sol” a conventional metaphor of beauty or the bearer of beauty, that is, the schematic processing of a classic program of yours Description can also be attributed, with “men benigno” their accompanying phenomenon in the form of mercilessness and with “fiede”, the same in its effect. This secondary theme is echoed again in “ridente” (line 5), which in view of the accompanying phenomena (“per le vie de la dannata gente”, line 7) can be interpreted as such. This secondary theme is invoked only associatively up to the third stanza, it is not yet obvious. The comparison of the face of the loved one with the sight of paradise (line 14) is not that unconventional either, in a sense it is the culmination of the schematic processing of a complete program of conventional description patterns in a poem, insofar as it should not actually be possible to do so To unite comparison and the conventional secondary theme of the cruel pride associated with beauty in one poem, at least not without explicitly addressing the contrast.[28]

3.2. Novelty and modernity

3.2.1. Mixing of styles and mixing of style levels

One would expect that in times when linguistic and stylistic criteria play a particularly large role in the evaluation of poems - and of course a poem whose main characteristic is the hyperfunction of style at such a time - particular attention would be paid to stylistic purity . It has already been shown that Paoli's poem is diametrically opposed to such an ideal. Each individual stanza seems to be taken from a completely different type of poem, primarily based on linguistic and stylistic criteria. This does not contradict the hyperfunction of the style, as has been shown, but another explanation is needed as to why it was precisely in this form. This explanation can be found in the novelty that was sought in the baroque era[29] and just by breaking with the previous conventions or the wrong use z. B. formerly content-related language styles was achieved. It is precisely by combining four stanzas, which seem to be taken from completely different poems of traditional form, into one poem, that he creates something completely new and unprecedented. A brief hint may suffice to show that this phenomenon also exists, at least in part, in Achillini. The use of the lexem “aggiusta” (line 4) can be seen as a borrowing from military jargon, which classically certainly has no place in a love poem; on the other hand, the level of style is also surpassed by the formulation “eterno al danno” (line 4). 7), which comes from the religious realm. While the explosion of traditional generic terms can be observed above all in Paoli, in Achillini there are concrete examples of the mixing of different linguistic levels, both typical manifestations of Baroque poetry,[30] who are one in breaking the conventional rules to create something completely new.The side effect of the whole thing is that the baroque gave a lot of thought to the detailed work, but developed little or no concepts for the design of larger ensembles.[31] This can also be seen in the Paoli poem, in which the cohesion of the individual stanzas is weak, if only because they are deliberately designed differently in terms of style, i.e. in the dominant area. The addiction to the new is thus another characteristic typical of the Baroque, which gives the hyperfunction of the style a certain path towards which it has to develop.

3.2.2. The headings: New Topics; The 'object seal'

One of the most obvious ways to satisfy the addiction to novelty was, of course, to search for new topics.[32] This possibility could be used all the more easily, since the hyperfunction of the style did not actually require the new topics to be presented in a way that corresponded to their content. If you look at the titles of the two poems, both authors do so according to the external form. In previous epochs, neither a “mina” nor an “ospedale” would have been found to be worthy of an appreciation in the form of a sonnet, at least if it made use of a sophisticated style of language such as this one. Perhaps one should be a little careful with “Dinanzi a un ospedale”, but it would have turned out to be a religious poem with a clear moral message and there is no such thing. In the case of Achillini, it is even a specimen of the genre of 'object poems' that emerged in the Baroque era: Typically an inanimate object, especially an artificially produced and as trivial as possible object, to which no poem had ever been dedicated, if possible, something in this category was easy to accomplish at least at the beginning, it was raised to the subject of a poem and it was precisely in this that the skill of the author and his wit - as well as the overfunction of the style - proved that he nevertheless succeeded in creating an artistic poem according to the taste of the time.[33] This is exactly what Achillini does when he formally makes a mine the subject of his poem. He makes use of one of the two basic types, the one in which a complete turnaround is achieved and a subject other than the original is presented as the new main theme. A characteristic of this genre, as it is of the Italian Baroque, is that the corresponding object is treated as completely neutral in terms of value and only forms the starting point for the language acrobatics.[34] The present sonnet is also a model in this regard, as Achillini on the one hand deliberately excludes the negative sides of the war that adhere to every object in his field and, on the other hand, takes the object as the starting point for stylistic masterpieces, the object whose direct naming he is successfully evades the first eight lines, which mainly serve his description, but in their place he finds highly artistic metaphors such as “muto foco” (line 4) or “incendioso e prigioniero inganno” (line 6).

3.2.3. The invention and manipulation of secondary code

The fact that our two authors want to offer something completely new in many respects can be shown in many ways. Here, an area should be considered that is particularly interesting in the Baroque, namely that of language, more precisely that of the secondary code. Both the invention and the processing of the existing secondary code are typical of the Baroque and, since, as has already been stated, what is new is sought, more typical of the Baroque than the unchanged use of the already available or even the immediate use of only the primary code.[35] Of our two authors, Achillini is the more diligent here. The mine is neither by its nature nor by its previous use in this sense as a metaphor for the tendency of people to fall in love. Achillini must first equate it - and with it the whole war theme to which he wants to expand this picture - to what it means. This feat deserves respect even if one does not value artificial craftsmanship as highly as the Italian baroque audience, for in view of the basic nature of the poem it must essentially be completed before it becomes quite clear that it is meant that way. The equation takes place step by step and above all with the help of the predication. The mine and the tendency to fall in love are in the same place, insofar as this is secret ("nera e sconosciuta" line 1 in preparation for "più secreto" line 9), are triggered by "una favilla" (line 9). 5 / line 12), lead to submission ("tiranno" line 2 as a predication here to "duce", more appropriate to "Amor" (line 14) = "amore"). Already mentioned and the main means of equation are the metaphors from the subject area of ​​fire already available in the existing secondary code, which can be used for elements of war events as well as the topic of love and thus also for both at the same time, equating it with it. There is the already mentioned “favilla”, which has to be taken literally in relation to the mine, “foco” as an image for the mine or its explosion (line 4, line 13) is as obvious as its use for the Love (line 10, also line 13) almost trivial, the use of "incendioso" (line 6) is almost ingenious, because it actually combines the easily inflamed in love and the highly explosive in one lexeme. In the final sentence, Achillini can then dare to combine all subject areas involved in this way in one sentence, a context of events, without being able to be misunderstood thanks to the well-introduced new secondary code. With Paoli, on the other hand, one can only talk about processing the existing secondary code. Since this is less interesting in terms of the more general phenomenon of the addiction to the new than the invention of a new one by Achillini, reference should only be made here to the previously described use of the mythological comparison in a non-obvious form. It also found further reasons why Paoli did not resort to Venus, Helena or other more obvious figures of myth as an image of beauty.

3.2.4. The relationship to tradition

It has already been shown that Achillini radically broke with tradition by making a metaphor, which similarly played only a subordinate role in Petrarch, the title subject of his poem, which also otherwise of her or the subject area to which it was naturalized was expanded, was dominated. We now also know more precisely why he did that, he wanted to offer something completely new, something that did not correspond to the tradition as represented by Petrarch. At the same time it also became clear that his poem would hardly be understandable without the knowledge of such traditional poems. The same applies to the Paolige poem. The third stanza would have no discernible relationship to the rest of the equation if it were not for the tradition of cold-heartedness and ruthlessness and the suffering of the lover with a donna as the owner of beauty, the text would no longer be understandable as a whole. This is characteristic of the Baroque, on the one hand it is consciously new and modern, on the other hand the way in which it implemented it is unthinkable without the existence of a tradition and its conventions.[36]

3.2.5. modernity

Novelty and modernity are important buzzwords in the Baroque era.[37] In many ways they are identical. In at least one respect, modernity can also be defined per se, namely insofar as a high degree of 'baroqueism' can be demonstrated. Because what was understood as modern at the time is nothing other than what, from the rear perspective, appears to be highly typical of the Baroque. This is or would be demonstrable in the high concentration of typical baroque features in these poems. However, not in the context of this work, unless the reference to the large number of examples listed here of the epoch features already mentioned and yet to be named suffice, or the fact that the features once described can easily be found in many other examples within the two poems can be found again, which could not be dealt with here. A small reference to a concrete turn to modernity should not be missing because it nicely characterizes the difference to the Renaissance. With the mine as a metaphor and pseudo-subject of his poem, it is no coincidence that Achillini turned to one of the most innovative branches of military technology of the time, which was also unprecedented in antiquity.[38] Now Petrarch uses a similar picture with “solfo et ésca” (line 5). But Petrarch uses on the one hand - quite in contrast to Achillini, as we have seen - this picture, because of the suitability of the natural model for comparison, and on the other hand binds it through the immediate transition to traditional metaphors ("e 'l cor un foco"), with which the 'new' are linked in terms of content and causation, closely integrated into the traditional metaphor language. In other words, what Achillini is consciously turning to modernity remains functionally subordinate to Petrarca, also in terms of style; the incorporation of a single contemporary element into tradition is just enough to connect it with today without affecting it substantially.

3.3. The nonexistent relation to reality

Another characteristic of Baroque poetry is that it has hardly any reference to non-linguistic reality.[39] This becomes clear from the over-function of the style, which attaches much greater importance to the level of expression in the texts than to the level of content, but via which the reference to extra-linguistic reality would have to be made. But there is also a conscious turning away from extra-linguistic reality at the level of expression. This has already been shown when comparing the use of metaphors. While Petrarch finds a new metaphor by choosing something whose natural model is suitable for illustrating what is meant, Achillini uses a similar metaphor, which, however, no longer seems particularly suitable in its naturalization and the associated embedding in a bloody war event Object like that of the innamoramento to illustrate from the subject of love, which, as I said, was not intended at all. So he consciously uses an image from reality that he cannot use in its natural condition, whose usability he must first establish with the help of purely linguistic means such as the ambiguity of metaphors such as “favilla” or “foco” (cf. above). The investigation of the distance from reality, even in the stylistic means used, should not be driven to infinity, but it should be noted that the attachment and functioning of a mine is not really described, but one has to have a very precise idea of ​​it in order to be able to to understand complex, non-factual metaphor language with which they are circumscribed.

As far as the actual content of the two poems is concerned, it has already been shown for the Achillini poem that ultimately so little is directly related to the innamoramento it is said that a type of poem from the literary tradition has to be used in order to be able to determine what the sonnet is about. The actual subject of the poem does not refer to a reference in extra-linguistic reality, it is simply taken from literary tradition. Conversely, this could also be shown in the fact that the text does not contain any elements, the underlying event, in which literally the author himself took part and even had to have been heavily involved emotionally, which is why thirdly, it would be the cause of the constitution to see the poem, to reconstruct it in some detail. But this goes too far, because one way or another this still has to happen as far as Paoli is concerned, who has chosen a different topic than that which is already present here in the Petrarca poem as traditional. Its theme is beauty. In the real world, beauty only exists in the form of concrete wearers that can be concretized. But neither the owner of this beauty nor this itself are described in any other way than with attributes borrowed from tradition. Everything that could indicate a real beauty outside of the linguistic world - which would have to be associated with some hair or eye color, to name just one example - is deliberately avoided. Time and place information, which in reality is not,[40] are a clear indication of the author that he only wants to pretend that he wants to refer to a temporally and locally determined event, that is, he admits - if not explicitly, but openly - that everything is fictitious and so there is by no means any reference to extra-linguistic reality.

Another possibility remains that some lesson should be drawn from what has been said or that some higher truth should be proclaimed in the texts, which does not specifically refer to the extra-linguistic reality. Yet it is obvious that neither is the portrayal of a innamoramentowhose main attraction is that it is only in the ninth verse that one learns that it is the content of the poem, and that the representation of a completely abstract beauty with the help of linguistic means deprived of its content and unsuitable in itself contains something of this kind. This is not only a characteristic of these two poems, but of Italy's baroque poetry in general.[41]

3.4. The ideal of finzione and the semblance of literary freedom

3.4.1. The gift of free invention

It was already clear that the hyperfunction of style, as well as the release from extra-linguistic reality, gave the poet a great deal of freedom in some respects; it also became clear that the demand for novelty and modernity also forced him to use it. The talent for finzione, the ability to invent freely, to create incidents, images, and metaphors out of nothing was accordingly highly valued.[42] Achillini also proves it in the choice of his metaphors, especially in the mine itself. It does not offer itself through its nature as an image in the context of the innamoramento on, insofar it is freely chosen, it is not taken from tradition, as a metaphor that is, a product of free inventiveness. At the same time, it dominates large parts of the poem or, as the apparent object of the poem, is its basis, and it is based on the power of free invention. In the Paolige poem there is above all the element of unbelievability, which corresponds to the demand for free invention. The requirement is "saper ben mentire",[43] That means it can already shine through that everything is freely invented and that is even a good thing, but the claim that it must at least remain conceivable is contained in it as a demand on the "lying".[44] So it is already possible that a donna, a member of the upper class, who alone in a serious poem can own a “beltà ch’ogni beltade eccede” and find an “ospedale” in reality, but very unlikely. Achillini is also good at fibbling. Because, as we have seen, it is completely unbelievable that him[45] was as if he, or at least his heart was blown up, because that innamoramento is shown as apparently not very deep. However, it is difficult to prove to him and only succeeds with a thorough analysis of the text, but even with a cursory reading of the text it is already clear that this event, described with so much effort, could not have meant so much to the author, even if it was only through the telltale word “incendioso” (line 6), which can be translated as “highly inflammable”, which applied to the author's heart, cannot mean anything other than his innamoramenti seldom shaped by duration and depth, so they are never “eterno al danno” (line 7). In the text, “incendioso” is just one attribute that makes “inganno” a “mina”, and “eterno al danno” are the consequences of their explosion, Achillini never actually “betrays” himself, so he “lies” really “well” '. Paoli also succeeds once again in lying boldly and thereby touching on a new area of ​​the unbelievable, that of the miraculous.[46] The assertion “ben lieto mor ...” is more than bold if you consider that the only reason for this is supposed to be the sight of a beautiful female face (line 14). That doesn't sound so implausible, at least not more implausible than the content of an average saint's vita, since this part is adapted to the narrative of a miracle, the pattern of sudden redemption within a religious context given by language (see above). That cannot be explained here, but compare how Katherina in the Leggenda veronese di Santa Caterina[47] assures the queen of the otherworldly certainty of salvation in spite of all earthly horrors. This here guarantees the privilege of being able to convey the semblance of such assurance of salvation to the personality that stands out above all other people, although it is not through holiness but through beauty.

3.4.2. Subjectivism, freedom and its ambivalence

The freedom to lie, the possibility of freeing oneself from all conceivable objective conditions, the freedom to deal with literary tradition at will, was characterized as “artistic subjectivism taken to extremes”.[48] In this case, it would be preferable to use the concept of freedom, as Battistini uses to paraphrase the ultimately same problem, because in it the thoroughly baroque-typical ambivalence of the phenomenon emerges. Because the supposed freedom of literature or the appearance as if the poem were exclusively the product of the unrestricted arbitrariness of the author are opposed to a series of do's and don'ts. First of all, as Battistini rightly points out, it is forbidden to deal seriously with any subject of politics, religion or morality.[49] As shown, this goes much further; it corresponds, as it were, to a ban on establishing any serious reference to non-linguistic reality in literature at all. The fact that there are also constraints within the linguistic and stylistic area itself - starting with the compulsion to break traditional rules, which includes starting from them - is confirmed by contemporary Giambattista Marino when he says: “la vera regola [ ...] è saper rompere le regole a tempo ea luogo, accomandandosi al costume corrente ed al gusto del secolo “.[50] So there are rules, conventions, a tradition that you basically have to uphold, but on the other hand you have to break them again, when and how that has to happen, which is not dictated by the poet but by the baroque taste of the time. At the same time, however, the appearance remains that the poem comes entirely from the author's will. It is he who is typical of the baroque.

3.5. Extremes, opposites and constant change

A whole complex of characteristics of Baroque poetry is closely related, but difficult to reduce to a common denominator. He is united above all in the aim of wanting to arouse astonishment.[51] Because that is yet another field, in this section it should be restricted to things the citation of which is intended to impress the reader. It is again significant that although they were mostly chosen because of their impressive effect in reality - or that they would have in reality if the area of ​​the miraculous and related is to be included - they are only cited on a linguistic level - for example as a metaphor without being meant. In this area belong: All extraordinary and extreme phenomena, so among other things very conspicuous in the descriptions of nature, in which in the Baroque never moderate phenomena - this is very noticeable in the descriptions of nature, in which in the Baroque never moderate phenomena are mentioned, as well with our two authors, one of whom, Achillini, lets a thunderstorm flow in (line 8: “tuona il ciel”, line 12: “il lampo”), whose other, Paoli, cites extreme drought (line 2: “or , che 'l Sol men benigno il terren fiede ")[52] -, antitheses that determine the poem Paolis, in which, following the basic stylistic structure, there is a constant change of what is set in opposition to the beltà,[53] but which also play a role in Achillini, in which, for example, the contrast between the secret installation of a mine and the drastic and obvious nature of its explosion permeates the entire sonnet,[54] Opposites and contrasts, which, because they stand out from the other, make one and the other appear more impressive.[55] Among the latter, of course, there are particularly existential contrasts[56] as with Paoli, who describes his theme, the "beltà", against the background of misery (title, line 1), heat and drought (line 2: "’ l Sol [...] il terren fiede "). Damnation (line 7), death (line 12) and “mortale orrore” (line 13) appear and thus proceed in a particularly baroque style.[57] Impressive opposites are of course particularly astonishing when they are united, which was sought to achieve in particular through the metaphor language,[58] according to Achillini, lines 12 - 13 with the help of the metaphors “favilla” and “foco” in one sentence both a military event and the decisive moment innamoramento in one describes. They are even more astonishing, if the union succeeds in a paradox,[59] as happened with Paoli (line 12: “ben lieto mor”), but also with Achillini z. B. in the formulation "prigioniero inganno" (line 6), which contains a contradiction in itself, since the word "prigioniero" contains the meaning component "rendered harmless", while "inganno" contains the meaning component "highly dangerous" is that through the transfer of “inganno” as an image to the intended object of the “mina” only comes to light more clearly. Contrasts and increased meanings can also be made clear in rivalries and arguments, which elements therefore also receive a special meaning in the Baroque.[60] From this it becomes clear why Achillini did this innamoramento as a battle with a victor (line 14: "trionfatore in campo") and then inevitably also a loser, which was not fundamentally new, except in the naturalization of the fighting. Of course, all appropriate stylistic devices are used to achieve extremes[61] like the outbid comparison[62] ("Beltà ch’ogni beltade eccede", line 4 of the Paoli poem) or the hyperbola[63] ("Eterno al danno", line 7 of the Achillini poem). Another means of impressing is the astonishing number of topics and objects that are included and touched on only through linguistic means, which can happen, for example, through the development of the metaphor[64] or in the metaphor as an abbreviation for very broad or different subject areas,[65] so with Achillini the already mentioned metaphors “favilla” and “foco”, which allow him to deal with elements of war and love in one, whereby a third subject area or at least metaphor, that of fire, remains given.

A typical feature of baroque poetry, which is at least related to the above, is the avoidance of the static.[66] Related at least insofar as the sudden change from one state to an entirely different one, as any very violent movement is sought in general. This can also be found with Paoli,[67] but especially nice with Achillini, who does not take a verb as a predicate that does not describe a movement or action that seeks sudden complete change (as expressly stated in line 7: “in un solo momento, eterno al danno”) and violent movements (cf. line 8: "crepa il suol, tuona il ciel, vola la ròcca"). Here again the comparison with the Petrarca poem is interesting. Because it turns out that on this point the baroque hinders itself in its goals. Because what is supposed to impress or cause astonishment here uses the impressive or astonishing of the natural model, which is only referred to in a purely linguistic manner. So the picture that Achillini in the eighth line mentioned cannot really be transferred to the consequences of a kiss, so the impression of the innamoramento evoked change weak compared to the impression Petrarch gives by making the innamoramento 'verisimilmente'[68] as lasting change that produced a permanent state (final stanza). Characteristic of the Baroque is the purely linguistic calling up of impressive and astonishing things, which, since it often refers back to the natural model without actually meaning it, the ability to achieve this is often lacking to a not insignificant extent.

3.6. Riddles, punchlines, fallacies

In this consideration, a broad field is also missing, that of puzzles, surprises, punch lines and fallacies.[69] It is represented in many ways in both poems. We will confine ourselves to presenting it on the basis of the pointe-like closing verses of both poems, which, despite their importance for understanding the entire poems, we have so far paid little attention to.

3.6.1. Achillini's final punch line

Achillini's mine metaphor is not only continued, it is also naturalized, thereby expanding the range of other hybrid metaphors on offer by placing it in the context of the conquest of a castle from the start (line 2: "muro", line 8: " ròcca ") and thereby the opposing general (line 2:" duce tiranno ") is introduced. This gives the author the opportunity to make a final punch line in which the previously enigmatic allusions from line 2 (“duce tiranno”) and line 11 (“per non esser d'un cieco e scherzo e gioco”) are resolved by the opposing general in the final verse as “trionfatore”, that is, as “victorious general”, and is given a name. It is about the personification of love, the god Amor. Traditionally, both the attributes “tyrannical” and “blind” are appropriate to this. First of all, this is a mystery, because it is clear from the start that the “duce” needs interpretation, since the attribute “tiranno” does not really suit any general, since only those who are already over can be considered tyrannical something rules and does not want to conquer it first, so something must be hidden behind this attribution. The attraction of the puzzle is increased by the fact that its solution is related to the revelation of the mine as a metaphor, which only happens after the "duce ​​tiranno" is mentioned. To what extent the final verse only solves the riddle and does not contain the element of surprise is difficult to say, since "tiranno" and "cieco" are references that are taken from contemporary cultural knowledge and are therefore not precisely stated how clear they actually were for the audience at that time, who was initially intended as a recipient. Nevertheless, Achillini finds it necessary to solve the riddle, which was not necessarily the case in the Baroque era.[70] The element of surprise is present in any case, insofar as the two preceding verses do not suggest this result as a logical conclusion. One certainly expects the completion of the innamoramentobut not in finding Cupid's victory in battle. The importance of the riddle and thus of the final verse becomes clear when one tries, in Achillini's essentially narrative text, the histoire to reconstruct. Because then one arrives at an astonishing result: The histoireThe one that can be most completely reconstructed is the one that focuses on the general Amor. It is not for nothing that he is the subject of the first sentence and the subject of the final verse. Thus, the correct understanding of the entire poem depends on the final verse, since Amor is not the subject of the poem, but this subject in the context of a histoirewhose center is Cupid, who in turn remains hidden behind enigmatic formulations until he is revealed as the doer in the closing verse. In a certain sense, then, the poem in its entirety is conceived with this kind of closing verse in mind. This punch line is due to the typical baroque appearance of fallacies and enthymema, whereby in the baroque one was prepared to see the former included among the latter.[71] It is a fallacy to see Cupid as the victorious general, as this implies that love and lover are in a relationship of enmity, which in no way corresponds to the actual logical relationship between the two. This fallacy is based above all on the naturalization of the personification "Cupid" as a person who can represent an enemy general, but of course also on the naturalization and expansion of the mine metaphor into a warlike context of events. Enthymema per se are inferences in which intermediate links, including premises, have been omitted.[72] They are very useful, among other things, in letting the reader draw not exactly logical conclusions, to whom the result of his own thought effort must appear more credible than if this fallacy were presented to him in full form. First of all, there is a classic case of an enthymemon, the step from the explosion of a mine to defeat in battle has been shortened for the sake of the punch line, omitting the necessary intermediate links, which are primarily temporal but also causal. Enthymema of this kind were already considered permissible in antiquity, so they are not typical of the Baroque and are primarily intended to prevent the reader (or listener) from becoming tired through lengthy explanations, a requirement that has been considered legitimate in poetry at all times.[73] It is more typical of the Baroque that a surprising final punch is won with it, since this shortens the train of thought from the immediately preceding one and the content may not come as a surprise at this point. It is completely typical of the Baroque, insofar as the already logical conclusion is shortened here in order to distract from the fact that the premises on which it is based are in everything, just not in the matter, that although not an actual fallacy, but at least a conclusion due to false assumptions for the sake of its plausibility is left to the reader, as are all conclusions regarding a changed understanding of the previous text.

3.6.2. The final point of Paolis

Paoli also succeeded in pointing the poem in the final verse in several ways. On the one hand, based on the last stanza, whose religious language and death theme lead us to expect a different conclusion than a renewed price for the earthly beauty of a certain person, on the other hand, insofar as at this point in time there must have been a certain degree of irritation about what Actually the subject of the poem is (see above), which is also resolved - with “bel volto” - in the final verse, and thirdly, insofar as it is the surprising reversal of the cold and haughty ones donna the third stanza in a parable of the "paradiso aperto" succeeds. The final verse thus represents a punchline and surprise in three respects and at the same time the no longer surpassable comparison to the illustration of beauty, no longer surpassable, because it comes from the religious field, and thus also forms the climax of the poem in terms of content. Here, too, there is the element of the enigmatic, insofar as it has meanwhile become unclear what is actually the subject of the poem and the surprising. The final punch line is based on a fallacy. It is based on the fact that what would otherwise appear to be a perfectly fitting picture has to be taken literally, that the idea of ​​someone “mira [...] in quel bel volto il paradiso aperto” (lines 13-14) with “paradiso aperto “As a comparison does not seem unbelievable at all, but if the person is not someone, but someone,“ chi qui di morte è or certo ”(line 12), it must be understood literally, namely that this is the promise with death to enter paradise immediately, and only this justified the assertion that he would be “ben lieto mor” (line 11), as anticipated as a conclusion from the whole.

3.6.3. Surprise and mystery as the main goals of Baroque poetry

It is therefore an essential task of a baroque Italian poem that the reader should be surprised and amazed. This is particularly evident from the fact that both poems end in a surprising ending. This final verse gives meaning or new meaning to significant parts of the poem. The same goes for the puzzles. With Achillini in particular, it became clear that they run through the poems in their entirety, are resolved in the final punch and this in turn gives their solution or in a part of the poem that is essential with the moments of surprise a different meaning than it initially seemed to have had. That is, both are of central importance for the entirety of the poem. Riddles, surprises and pointing are by no means subordinate characteristics of Baroque poetry, but extremely important features.[74] It is also typical of the Baroque that their realization depends on pseudo-logic and fallacies.[75]

3.7. Summary of what has been said under the concept of acutezza, the concept of concetto

The concept of concetto means roughly the 'ingenious idea' and includes almost everything that has already been listed here and that could be given this predicate.[76] The concept of acutezza or argutezza - both are used almost synonymously, as is another contemporary term, namely ingegno - means the ability of a poet, such concetti to find, or the property of poems, such concetti to contain or be based on them.[77]Acutezza proves a poet in the virtuoso use of language and stylistic devices by basing his poem on a completely new idea, in that he `` knows how to lie well '', uses at first glance believable fallacies to arrive at an unthinkable result by focusing on astonishing or wonderful[78] Ideas come up because he knows how to incorporate extremes, incompatible, diverse and unsurpassable things, by giving up refined puzzles and always being able to surprise, by letting the poem end in a punch line and so on.[79] We cannot go into all of this again. But it should be pointed out that there are just such concetti that made our two poems so attractive to contemporaries. The one concetto is the punchline in the final verse in both cases. The other determines the overall concept in both cases. With Achillini it is the idea to choose a lead as the subject of a poem and leave the reader in the dark for eight lines that it is only meant as a metaphor for the actual subject of the poem. With Paoli, what is the basis of the whole exists concetto in describing a subject in four stanzas that seem to have been taken from different poems entirely different in content.

Something that contemporaries also expected from good poems, again to a large extent identical with acutezza on the one hand, but on the other hand also largely overlaps with the demand for something new, was boldness,[80] which, thirdly, is partly identical with what can be described as subjectivism or freedom. We save ourselves the attempt to provide him with textual evidence. Which and how many of the mentioned phenomena are included should be clear anyway. Just like that this term, like freedom, is extremely ambivalent, because boldness doesn't mean anything other than conforming to contemporary norms, not doing something really bold.

3.8. Alignment of the poetry marked by acutezza with the goal of entertainment

It has already been shown that the value attached to poems by contemporary audiences is certainly not to be found in anything outside of the poems themselves, not in something to which they refer in extra-linguistic reality, not even in a message or a higher truth that they conveyed, and certainly not in keeping with a literary tradition. Whatever it is, what made these poems so attractive to contemporary audiences, must already be contained in the texts and in the main characteristics of the poetry of that time already identified in them. The following points have already been mentioned or result from what has been said: Splendor and splendor of words, artistic skill in dealing with linguistic and stylistic means, novel and modern, believable lies, refined fallacies, fairy-tale and wonderful, amazing, gigantic and extreme, which can no longer be surpassed and limitless variety, puzzles, surprises and punch lines. All of this boils down to a single expectation, which is to be entertained but to be entertained well on a high intellectual level.[81] Because, as we have seen, the comprehension of all these entertaining things as well as their creation required a thorough mastery of the cultural knowledge of the epoch as well as constant and sometimes independent thinking, the use of the ingegno, also on the part of the reader.[82]

4. Conclusion

The aim of the Italian Brock poetry is to entertain, but perhaps its function does not have to be restricted to this. After all, a discourse, including the literary one, is also determined by its relationships to other discourses. And this relationship consists not least of all in the demand for comprehensive education, which also includes the trivial things of this world - as mentioned, you have to know about how a mine works - as a prerequisite for participating in this 'entertainment game' can and must. It is the demand that is actualized and confirmed by each such poem. And it is a requirement that fundamentally distinguishes it from what appears today as mere entertainment, which the requirement to think along with and the requirement of extensive knowledge is thought to be fundamentally opposed. This, in the comprehensive grasping of the world in knowledge, as a prerequisite for participation in literary discourse, shows that the Baroque age was not only replaced by the Enlightenment, but also produced it.

5. Literature used

Primary texts:

- A. Buck, K. Heitmann, W. Mettmann (eds.), Poetry teachings in Romania from the Renaissance and Baroque periods, Frankfurt a. M. 1972.
- B. Croce (ed.), Lirici marinisti, Bari 1910.
- G. Marino, Lettere, ed. v. M. Guglielmetti, Turin 1966.
- C. Muscetta, P. Rivalta (eds.), Parnaso italiano. Crestomazia della poesia italiana dalle Origini al Novecento, Vol. 1, Poesia del Duecento e del Trecento, Turin 31956
- F. Petrarca, Canzoniere. Rerum vulgarium fragmenta, ed. v. G. Contini, Alpignano 1974

Secondary literature:

- S. Battaglia, Grande dizionario della lingua italiana, 21 vols, Turin 1961 - 2002.
- A. Battistini, "La cultura del Barocco", in: Storia della letteratura italiana, ed. v. E. Malato, Vol. V, La fine del Cinquecento e il Seicento, Rome 1997, pp. 464 - 501.
- H. Friedrich, Epochs of Italian Poetry, Frankfurt a. M. 1964.
- G. Meggle (ed.), Action, Communication, Meaning, Frankfurt a. M. 21993


[1] Quoted from B. Croce (ed.), Lirici marinisti, Bari 1910.

[2] Quoted from Croce loc.

[3] H. Friedrich, Epochs of Italian Poetry, Frankfurt a. M. 1964, p. 545.

[4] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 577. The way picture plane and that innamoramento are equated, will be discussed below, see p. 10.

[5] Regarding the first two stanzas there can hardly be any doubt, as I said (see previous note) we will have to come back to the equation. As far as the closing stanza is concerned, lines 12 - 13 form a sentence in which only one genitive attribute “d'un bacio” cannot be related as well or better to the image of the ignition and explosion of a mine, in the closing verse it finally relates only "Amor" does not necessarily refer to a war event, but also only if one does not think of the personification who appears here as a general, but of what was originally meant by this personification, which is only referred to here when transferred from the pictorial level is to be taken, which is therefore the only one available as one taken from the war theme.

[6] Since poems do not generally necessarily have to have a fictional content, it must first be assumed that what is supposed to have happened to the author should be presented as actually happened, at least on a fictional level, unless he gives direct indications that this is not the case , But this is not the case here.

[7] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 68.

[8] On the popularity of the motif see: Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 35, 67 and others

[9] See, for example, the quotations under the heading "scaldare [7.]" in: S. Battaglia, Grande dizionario della lingua italiana, vol. XVII, Turin 1994, p. 759, or under the heading "ferita [6.]" in : S. Battaglia, Grande dizionario della lingua italiana, Vol. V, Turin 1968, p. 826.

[10] The close connection between theme and style still requires Tasso, see Friedrich op. Cit. P. 457.

[11] As synonyms for beauty, the myth initially recognizes countless other goddesses and mortals, be it Venus who presented Paris with the price of beauty, be it Helena, who he received as the most beautiful of mortals, be it the countless lovers of Zeus and so on .

[12] The otherwise not particularly meaningful time indication of line 2, which can be reinterpreted here and thus facilitates the interpretation of this section, is helpful for the interpretation. The connection is established via the attribute "men benigno", which also belongs to the woman being worshiped, and via the predicate "fiede", to which the added "ferite" from line 11 correspond. The sun, the classic metaphor of radiant beauty, would correspond to the subject of the poem in this reinterpretation of the second line. At the same time, the third stanza is a description of beauty (the "Sol" from line 2) in its accompanying phenomena ("men benigno" (line 3) / line 9-10) and its consequences ("fiede" (line 2 ) / "Ferite" (line 11)).

[13] The otherwise not particularly meaningful time indication of line 2, which can be reinterpreted here and thus facilitates the interpretation of this section, is helpful for the interpretation. The connection is established via the attribute "men benigno", which also belongs to the woman being worshiped, and via the predicate "fiede", to which the added "ferite" from line 11 correspond. In this reinterpretation of the second line, the sun, the classic metaphor of radiant beauty, would correspond to the subject of the poem. At the same time, the third stanza is a description of beauty (the "Sol" from line 2) in its accompanying phenomena ("men benigno" (line 3) / line 9-10) and its consequences ("fiede" (line 2 ) / "Ferite" (line 11)).

[14] Last but not least, Persephone is known as the queen of the underworld. This aspect is emphasized here to the detriment of others by “reggia” (line 6) and “regina” (line 8).

[15] The already mentioned quasi-anticipation of the content of this stanza in line 2 does not change anything, since it expressly only gives information about time and weather.

[16] See above. 4.

[17] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 89 ff.

[18] A. Battistini, La cultura del Barocco, in: Storia della letteratura italiana, ed. v. E. Malato, Vol. V. La fine del Cinquecento e il Seicento, Rome 1997, p. 465.

[19] Quoted from Francesco Petrarca, Canzoniere. Rerum vulgarium fragmenta, ed. v. Gianfranco Contini, Alpignano 1974, p. 149.

[20] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 558, 647 ff .; Battistini loc. P. 479.

[21] Battistini loc. P. 476.

[22] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 561, 647 ff .; Battistini loc. P. 480, 497.

[23] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 561 ff .; Battistini loc. Pp. 466, 479 f.

[24] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 540; Battistini loc. P. 483 f.

[25] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 561; Battistini loc. P. 497.

[26] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 559, 658.

[27] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 11 ff., 35 ff.

[28] For the conventionality of the examples cited, see Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 35 ff., 228 ff., 467.

[29] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 620; Battistini loc. Pp. 464 ff., 476 ff., 497 ff.

[30] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 546, p. 622 f .; Battistini loc. P. 478.

[31] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 627; Battistini loc. P. 466.

[32] Battistini loc. P. 478.

[33] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 577 ff.

[34] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 577.

[35] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 541, 661 f.

[36] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 541; Battistini loc. P. 484.

[37] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 620; Battistini loc. Pp. 464 ff., 476 ff., 496 f.

[38] This is important because the example of antiquity continued to play a role in the Baroque era, even if one no longer wanted to achieve it, but rather to surpass it. So says A. Tassoni († 1635) in his Pensieri diversi X, 14: “Nella melica furono eccellentissimi i greci e i latini; ma certo non furono più eccellenti de ’nostri" (A. Buck, K. Heitmann, W. Mettmann (eds.), Poetry teachings in Romania from the Renaissance and Baroque periods, Frankfurt a. M. 1972, p. 213), cf. Friedrich op. Cit. P. 538 f .; Battistini loc. P. 483 f.

[39] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 592, 621; Battistini loc. P. 478 f.

[40] The mention of “un ospedale” in the title is deliberately vague, the location in line 1 is obviously not, the time in line 2 is only very vague, which could have been avoided, that is, it was done consciously. However, an unnecessarily and deliberately imprecise time specification is a time specification whose primary function cannot be to specify the time and which actually does not fulfill this function (it has already been shown that it has other functions), i.e. no real time specification.

[41] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 622.

[42] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 631 f .; Battistini loc. Pp. 467, 497.

[43] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 634.

[44] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 622, 631 ff .; Battistini loc. P. 468.

[45] I am not talking about the '1. Pers. Sg. ’Or a homodiegetic narrator, since the" saper ben mentire "refers to the author, so here contemporaries had to assume at least a fictitious identity of both, more is really not necessary with" saper ben mentire ".

[46] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 622; Battistini loc. Pp. 468, 497.

[47] C. Muscetta, P. Rivalta (eds.), Parnaso italiano. Crestomazia della poesia italiana dalle Origini al Novecento, Volume 1: Poesia del Duecento e del Trecento, Turin 31956, p. 263, lines 135 ff.

[48] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 636.

[49] Battistini loc. P. 477.

[50] G. Marino, Lettere, ed. v. M. Guglielmetti, Turin 1966, p. 396.

[51] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 622, 648; Battistini loc. Pp. 466 f., 479, 498.

[52] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 583 f. The same applies to catastrophes, raging elements and related phenomena of all kinds (Friedrich op. Cit. P. 584 ff.), To which the explosion of a mine (lines 7-8, lines 12-13), the devastating military defeat (line 14) and everything listed in line 8 ("crepa il suol, tuona il ciel, vola la ròcca") at Achillini, as can the risk of drought (line 2) at Paoli.

[53] The antithesis is already given in the relationship between the title “Dinanzi a un ospedale” and the actual subject of the poem “la sua beltà ch’ogni beltade eccede” (line 4). The relationship between the two is antithetical, as the occupants of an “ospedale” usually had anything but beauty to their own. What remains in the following is the antithesis, not its contrasting elements. Although one element of the pair of opposites is still the “beltà” or its owner, the poem deliberately creates irritation about whether this is really the main theme of the poem. What is in the antithesis of the beltà is always changed, as is shown most clearly in the third stanza, because the rejected lover in the first person. (named by “le ferite del mio core”, line 11) has little to do with the “turba languente” from the beginning (line 1), at least on the content level. The equivalence between the various elements that represent this part of the antithesis is caused by the common fate of suffering (line 1: "languente", line 7: "dannata", line 11: "ferite", line 12: "Chi qui di morte è or certo" or line 13: "mortale orrore") and produced by standing in the antithesis of the "beltà" or its wearer.

[54] Line 1: "nera e sconosciuta", line 4: "muto" etc., line 8: "crepa il suol, tuona il ciel, vola la ròcca", line 13: "publicossi il foco". How much Achillini cares about this antithesis and the extreme phenomena associated with it is shown by the fact that it is precisely these that elude complete transferability to what is meant. Because the tendency to fall in love is not something that was secretly attached at a certain point in time, nor is it necessary that it should become apparent to the whole world when someone fell in love.

[55] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 550 f., 567 f., 583 ff, 626, 662 ff .; Battistini loc. P. 477 ff.

[56] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 567 f .; Battistini loc. P. 480.

[57] How fundamental the existential contrast is for Paoli's sonnet can be seen in the fact that this contrast is already in the relationship between the title (“Dinanzi un ospedale”) and the actual subject (line 4: “beltà, ch'ogni beltade eccede”) to the Carry comes. Achillini also plays with existential contrasts, as is already evident in the relationship between the title ("La mina") and the actual subject ("innamoramento"). It is the contrast between an inanimate, artificial object of the external world and a process of the inner, psychic life of a naturally given creature and that of the subject areas of love and war, the existential contrast between mutual absolute esteem and the attempt to subjugate or even destroy one another .

[58] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 647 f .; Battistini loc. P.480.

[59] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 567, 637; Battistini loc. P. 498.

[60] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 664 f.

[61] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 662; Battistini loc. Pp. 468, 479.

[62] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 662.

[63] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 662 ff .; Battistini loc. Pp. 468, 479.

[64] This cannot be done here for reasons of space, but in both poems it is sufficient to consider the nouns in isolation, if necessary with an attribute, in order to get an impression of the diversity of the subjects and objects addressed.

[65] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 648; Battistini loc. P. 480.

[66] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 587; Battistini loc. P. 500.

[67] Just note the constant change in the point of view: Line 3: "veggio", line 8: "si vede", line 11: "nel mirar" where it is "she" who looks, lines 13 - 14: "Chi qui di morte è or certo [...] mira".

[68] See.Battistini loc. P. 476.

[69] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 550 f., 554, 567, 626, 643 ff., 648, 661 f., 667 ff .; Battistini loc. P. 497 f.

[70] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 554, 667; Battistini loc. P. 497 f.

[71] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 644.

[72] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 644.

[73] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 644.

[74] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 552 f., 554, 622, 669 f .; Battistini loc. P. 497 f.

[75] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 643 ff.

[76] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 637 ff.

[77] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 628 ff .; Battistini loc. P. 496 ff.

[78] One of these is Paoli's final stanza, which is adapted to the story of a miracle in a saint's life. See above on page 13.

[79] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 628 ff .; Battistini loc. P. 498.

[80] Friedrich op. Cit. Pp. 638, 653; Battistini loc. P. 497.

[81] Friedrich op. Cit. P. 670 f .; Battistini loc. P. 497 ff.

[82] Battistini loc. P. 497 f.Battistini's further conclusions that it is a question of the self-affirmation of a caste (the court circles) can only be followed to a limited extent. In a way, it is perhaps the self-affirmation of an intellectual elite, but there is no absolute limit that would exclude anyone with the appropriate diligence, if they had access to written culture at all.