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1 SPRING DOPPELSPRUGHE 春聯 FROM 1942 A N PEK1NGER HAUSTUREN Use Martin, Beijing Even today, with the Chinese New Year, a cheerful black and red comes to the gray streets of Beijing. This is due to the paper strips that were newly glued on that day, next to and above the house. Red strips of paper, about 8 x 97 cm in size1, are emblazoned on the door posts, and on the lintel an equally high, but only 28 cm wide, often gold-speckled cross piece2. The ends of the red stripes should be 5 cm wide with gold paper chin po 金 箱, sometimes only at the top. However, for economic reasons, this jewelry is often not used today. The texts on the longitudinal stripes are called because they consist of antithetic double verses, double spells on the door frame k uang tui 框 對, also house tyrolean double spokes ta men tui 大門 對 or chieh men tui 街 門 對. They represent the usual spring double words. Cf. N a g a o p. 354, Col. 7. The horizontal stripes over the door are called Cross-Written SprucheM heng p, i 橫披 or 橫 皮 (B o u i 11 a r d p. 138, Par. 2 incorrectly writes 撗 壁). In the case of large doors, up to 5 slogans are stuck next to each other. The frame and cross-talk are not always inked on red paper, but in Beijing in the case of mourning in the generations from that of the head of the family upwards, not in the first year, in the second on blue and in the third on peach-colored (i.e. pink) Mourning period is about to end from the fourth year back to red. Cf. N a g a o p. 351, col. 8/9. In the event of death, the spring double spokes that have already been attached are pasted over white for 49 days. If you are mourning your uncle on your father's side * what is easy 1) N a g a o indicates the following dimensions: approx. 4-5 inches (= 12-15 cm) wide and 4.2-4.3 feet (= cm) long. Cf. N a g a o p. 354 Col. 9. Grube only writes: long red strips of paper with antithetical verses, cf. Grube p. 93, para. 4. The difference in size is due to the different sizes of the pets and frames. 2) Here at N a g a o no mass. 3) D o r e I I, p. 303 also mentions other colors, probably for other places. 89

2 90 ILSE M ARTIN mentions mourning, then in the year in question no spring doubles are used, but red in the next. Cf. N a g a o p. 351, col. 9/10. The second year of mourning begins with the New Year celebrations following the death. In Beijing, during the Manchu period, white paper with a red or blue border was used for the court and palaces of the imperial princes and hearts. 'In the Yen-ching S ui - shih-chi 燕京 歲時 言 es it says: Only the court and the imperial princes and dukes use white paper with red or blue borders'.4 In contrast, one stuck among the people exclusively red spring double-ended words and it was traditional not to allow them to be copied from those of the nobility. It also happened that in the apartments of princes or high-ranking personalities, the texts of the Spring Double Speakers were hung carved in wooden boards. Since good wood was chosen for this and the texts were carved in the handwriting of good calligraphers, they were very beautiful, and it was best to hang them up every year. Cf. N a g a o p. 352, A b p. 1. I have seen a few such inscription boards. In addition to the door frame, the doors of the Beijing domestic doors are also inscribed with inscriptions. They are called after their location Tiirzentrum men hsin 門 尤 This is the name given to the language which is placed on the two wings of the house door at New Year's Day, i. H. where the door god pictures are usually attached, sticks. The most common of these are four- or five-syllable double-spells on red paper 1.5 feet (= cm) wide and 4.2-4.3 feet (= cm) long. Cf. N a g a o p. 353, Sp. The spriiche on the door center are often lacquered or even carved in lacquer. This is considered more elegant than sticking strips of paper. But besides the cheapness, this has the advantage that everyone can. choose your own saying katin. For houses to be rented, a smooth, not clearly defined door surface is therefore more suitable. The different lengths of the two types of sayings result from the proportions of the longitudinal stripes on the door leaf and door frame. The door frame strips are about 12 times as long as they are wide, those on the door leaves only about three times. Your text will therefore have to be longer and usually consists of "only 4 or 5 syllables per verse, as indicated by N agao. In contrast, this is sufficient 4) And further: Those who do not belong to the imperial family are not allowed to use these varieties, cf. B odde p. 100, A b p.1.

3 SPRING DOPPELSPRUCHE 91 observed the number of syllables in the door frame speech up to 15 per verse. The door leaves bear longer inscriptions if an almost square form is chosen instead of the note form described here. The inscription on the two halves then runs symmetrically from the outside to the inside. In addition to these stripes stuck on, next to and above the door, there is also the following adornment: 1. Above the horizontal stripe, a square ton fang 斗方 or tou feng 斗 封 made of red paper 16.3 cm on a side5 with an inked lucky symbol foot On its historical origins from the beginning of the Ming period, cf. Dore II pp. 301/2. 2. Outside the long stripes, i.e. further away from the door, in shops on both sides, a large red stripe with gold or black letters: Great luck when the shop reopens; Successful in all activities k ai shin ta chi wan shih heng t ung 開市 大吉 萬事亨通. The shop doors are often only separated from the shop windows by the door frame. Then these two strips can be found on pillars between the windows or even at the ends of the shop front. But even if they are placed far apart, the symmetry is always preserved. 3. Below the transverse spell above the door hang on the lintel, especially of shop doors, sometimes yellow thin pieces of paper about 10 x 6 cm in size, ending in three jagged lobes, into which three times three Kasch g * are punched. The hole in the cash is also a hole in the paper. These fine pieces of paper are glued on with a 3 x 3 cm large tou fang, whereupon in gold the luck sign fu 福, the joy sign hsi 喜 or the having 有 identical sign yu 酉, radical no. 164,10. of the 12 earth tribes, the last one always standing upside down, are written down. Cf. about it also pit p. 97 No. 26. This combination is only found secondarily on doors, mainly on carts, especially their spokes, on vessels of all kinds and above windows. They are called market-profit flags U shih ch'ien 利市 錢 (or 千) 6, vulgar po-fen 百分. 5) The length of the side is given by Mathews and in T z? U -h a i as 1 foot '(30 cm). It depends on the size of the remaining papers. 6) 錢 or the equivalent 千 can be found in this meaning flag, not with Couvreur, with Giles only in a binomial himg-ch ien 紅 錢, but not explained here either. The Tung-ching meng - hua lu 東京 夢華 錄 from the Sud Sung period mentioned in Chap. 5, sheet 2 v the Li-shih ch ien on the occasion of a weddingj the Pei-meng s o -y e n 北 夢 填 言 from the 10th century, from the time of the 5th dynasties, applies it to a botched candidate. After that.

4 92 ILSE MARTIN 4. Flutter slip kna ch, ien 卦 錢 or 卦 千, cut out like a silhouette, made of red, green or gold speckled red or yellow paper, also blue for mourning. Up to 10 characters are set in a basic ornament, sometimes a transverse phrase at the top and a long phrase on each side; because of inflation pages with colored; Pasted paper figures. The lower edge is always jagged, but in various> forms7.破 .. 5. Finally, the door decoration in the following Siniae also includes the individual longitudinal strips stuck to a wall, fence, tree or stone opposite, which generally read If you go out, you may encounter something pleasant ch u men chien hsi 出門 見 喜 or At the beginning of spring great joy li ch, un chien hsi 立春 見 喜 to wear. Opposite von Laden is also occasionally written: When you go out, meet wealth chu men chien ts ai 出門 昆 財 or it falls to me to get rich tui wo sheng ts ai 對 我 生財, or a combination of this saying with the first, by writing the two four characters one inside the other: 簡 閥 睦 職. Sole marriage intertwined characters are called ts ou tzu 湊 字 or lien tzu 連 字, cf Grube p. 97 No. 23. On representative protective walls opposite Buddhist temples is chiseled or in plaster in a tou fang a large Buddha sign fo 佛, opposite the apartment of believing Buddhists also: If you go out, you may meet Buddha chu men chien fo 出門 見佛_ Written on pieces of paper and glued on or in plaster, d. H. Stucco work or brick carving on a protective wall opposite ying jyi 影壁 or yin pi 隱 壁 are also occasionally the characters Alles Gute chien h 戴 穀 8. it can be assumed that the meaning has a greater scope than the literal favorable market *, namely luck. The C h o k e n g -1 u shows in Chap. 8, p. 7 b to the following passage in the Book of Changes, Shuo kua 說 卦, 57. Trigram Sun H: close to what is required, a threefold market 爲 近利 市 三倍 This passage with the Casur to li 示! Is vulgar, also in the C h o -k e n g l u, contracted to a threefold profit on the market. Cf. T z ^ u -h a i s_v. 7) These are probably the ones at D o r 6 II p. 302 ff above the doors. The actually often observed five number is probably due to the original use to invoke the five spirits of luck. with figures pasted on represent the original type. Grube p. 96, No. also 8) This passage from the Shih-ching 詩經, 小雅, 天保 (No. 166) translated by Strauss p. 263 No. 1: (The Himinel) (ier makes you full of everything that is good 俾 爾 敎 Das. The whole thing appears as heng p i. On the interpretation of the two characters in question 戟 穀 cf. T z 5u -h a i s. V.

5 FRU HLIN GSD OPPELSPRU CHE 98 The sign placed opposite the front door corresponds to a room opposite the bed or the usual seat if you look up, see joy t, ait, ou chien hsi 抬頭 見 喜, which is sometimes also on the wall opposite the Hauftlir lost. The protective wall in the courtyard, which hides the view of the person entering from the street, bears the following mottos: Immeasurable joy hung hsi 鴻禧, increased joy yen hsi 延 釐, welcome, o good luck symbol ying hsiang 迎祥 or a vertically written HP . It is out of place here to follow closely the development of the talismans attached to the Chinese front door up to the emergence of spring double spells. The following should only be briefly indicated: The spring double-ended undoubtedly developed from the peach-wood planks t, ao pan ^ 板 set up on both sides in front of the front door. Peach wood for warding off ghosts, namely for cleaning the surroundings * of a coffin, is already mentioned in the Chou-li 周禮. Cf. T a o -f u k a o p. 55 above, para. 2 and L i -c h i, 檀弓 下, p. 17.4 in S h i h -s a n c h i n g. Peachwood appears as a tiirtalisman in Chuang-tzu 莊子 and in Chan-kuo t s, e 戰 國策. The passage in Chuang-tzu, which is only preserved in quotations, is in the T ai-p ing y ii - lan 太平 御 覽 chap. 29: A peach talisman was planted next to it (d. L next to the door) on 樹 桃符 其 旁. In the rendering of 0 u - yang Hsiin 歐陽詢 9 in his I -w e n lei-chii 藝文 類 聚 it means: You stick peach branches to the door and put ashes on the bottom. The boys don't fear it, but the evil spirits do. This means that the evil spirits don't know as much as the boys 描 桃 枝 於 ​​戶 連 灰 其 下 童子 不畏 而 鬼 畏 之 是 是 鬼 智 不 若 童子 也. Cf. T ao-fu k a o p. 55, bottom last column. From the peach trunk fao keng 桃 ネ 更 a doll made of peach wood tjao jen ^ 人 became in the time of the Warring States. The Chan-kuo ts e brings a parable of the sophist Su Ch in 蘇秦 10, in which the peachwood doll is addressed as follows: You 9) (Giles: d. 645). Giles B.D. No. 1594, Wen-hsueh- c h i a Nr K a t a 1o g p On the work mentioned here cf. Szu-k u ch ^ iian-shu 10) d. 317 BC. Chr. Giles B.D. No. and Theunissen: Su T s, in and the politics of the longitudinal and transverse axis (Tsung-Heng-S c h u 1e) in ancient Chinese, Breslau 1938 (Diss. Berlin).

6 94 ILSE MARTIN Peach wood from the east, you have been carved into a person and painted red, and now you are used as the stern of the house liren 今 子 東 國 之 桃木 削 子 爲人.傾 丹 彩 用 子 以 當 門戶 之 厲. Cf. T ao-f u-k ao p. 56, below, para. 2 .. / The door guards represented by the puppets are called (Shen) Shu (神) 荼 and Yii-lii 鬱 優. They are figureheads around the Yellow Emperor, in the F eng -sut ung 風俗 通 from the Han period as in the books of the Yellow Emperor 黃帝 iert 11 (only commented on in the Sui period; so it is not possible to determine when they Mentioned discussed before the writing of the F eng -sut 'ung. They are said to have kept watch and control over the spirit world, cf. C hung Ch usui -shihc hi 荆楚 歲時 記 lbsp. 3/4; Dore XI pp 978/5 In addition to the two forms of peach wood talismans, the peach wood seal t, ao yin ^ 印, 6 x 3 inches, about 18 x 9 cm in size, was added from the second month of summer (probably over ?) the front door was hung up to stop the evil influences.Cf. H ou H an -shu, Li-i-chih 禮儀 ​​志, p. 685.2. In addition to the stem-doll development, there is a stem-board development can still be found next to each other in the Chin period, but gradually become one as the figures of the peach pupae are painted on the peach boards or their names (Shen) Shu and Yii-lii are written on it. Then at the time of the five dynasties, instead of the bilamsse or names, the four initial characters of the "Book of Changes I-ching treten: yuan heng li cheng 元亨利貞. Cf. Wilhelm, p. 1: That which is creative has sublime success, demanding through persistence, _ How our today's spring double-talk evolved from this, Huang Hsiu-fu 黃 休 um 12 around 1001 reports in his guest speeches from the thatched Pavilion Mao-ting k 'o -hua 話 客 話 under the heading: In our holy (that is, the Sung) dynasty, in the 2nd year of Chieteh (964), a year with the cycle signs Chia-tzU13, troops were set out on a punitive expedition against Shu next year the ruler of Shu (from his lands) went out and submitted. In the 2nd month the Vice Minister of War and Councilor Mr. Lii Yii-ch'ing14 became military commissioner (of Shu) 1 1) d. i_ das 黃帝內 經 of Ch ien H an -shu, 30 p. 0438.1. 12) At cf. Wen-hsueh-chia no) 午 is wrong for tzu 子. 14) Cf. his biography in Sung-shih Cape, 263.

7 SPRING DOUBLE PROACHES 95 appointed. He put his official residence in the library of the Crown Prince of the Unrecognized (Shu). Before that, the ruler of Shu had given out a pair of peach talismans for every single door in the palace on New Year's Eve so that the 4 characters Yilan heng li cheng 元亨 禾 貞 could be written on them. Now the Crown Prince, who could easily write (door) notices, personally selected the following inscription in 8 characters for the peachwood talismans in the library of his own palace: Abundant happiness hangs down from heaven The earth receives the eternal spring had done it for the sobriety of speaking. Now the first name of the Herm Lii 'tjberreiches was Gliick (Yii-ch'ing); The holy birthday feast of (Emperor Sung) T'ai-tsu was called 'eternal spring, and hanging down from heaven and receiving the earth' are sun-clear omens. (With that) (the possibilities for) the fall and prosperity of the country were firmly foreshadowed. C f. 1st section of the Mao-ting k o-hua.蜀 亡 先兆 聖朝 乾 德 ニ 年, 歲 在 甲午, 興師 伐 蜀.明年 春 蜀主 出 降.二月 除 兵部 侍 郞 參知政事 呂 公 餘 慶 知 軍 府 事 以 僞 皇太子 策動 府 爲 理 所 先是 蜀主 每 歲 除 日, 諸 宮門 各 給 桃符 ー 對, 俾 題 元亨利貞 四字.時 僞 太子 善 書 礼.選 本 宮 策 勳 府 桃符, 親自 題 曰: 天 垂 餘慶.地 接 長春 八字 以爲 詞 翰 之 美 也.至 是 呂 公 名 餘慶.太祖 誕 聖 節 號 長春 天 垂 地 接 先兆 皎然 國 之 替 興 固 前 定 矣 Even the ruler of Shu himself, Meng Ch ang 孟 规 15, the father of the author just mentioned, is on the doorstep with this play on words of his palace entered the literature. In the S u n g - A n n a 1e n, chap. 479, Shu shih-chia, p. 5697, 2-3 it says: Every New Year's Eve (Meng Ch, ang) ordered the academics to write inscriptions for peachwood talismans, which were attached to the right and left of the doors of the living rooms (of the palace). Last year, academic Hsin Yen-sun16 wrote a label. (Meng) Ch'ang didn't think they were good enough, ordered himself a brush and wrote the following: 15) Was Giles B.D. Nr and Wen-hsiieh-chia -Nr Cf. his biography in Sung-shih Kap) Cf. his biography in S ung-shih chap. 479 (following that of the IConig Meng Ch ang 孟 趣).

8 96 ILSE MARTIN In the New Year we will have over-rich happiness. We call the festive season Eternal Spring. 16a In that year, on the 11th day of the first month, he submitted to himself ^ and the (Sung) Emperor T, ai_tsu kdmanded Lii YU-ch ing to the prefect of Ch, eng-tu; and eternal spring was the designation of the emperor's birthday.每 歲 除 命 學士 爲 '華!題 桃符, 置 寢 門 左右.来年 學士 幸 寅 遜 撰 詞 昶 以其 非 エ, 自 命筆 題 云: 新年 納 餘慶, 嘉 節 號 長春 以其 年 正月 十一 十一 日 降, 太祖 命 呂餘慶 知 成都 府, 而 長春 乃 聖 節 名也 This saying is the first one we have received that has a form of our today's spring double-spoke. It is mentioned as early as 1000 AD, so it undoubtedly dates from the 10th century. In this historical consideration of the form of the saying and its general content, the question of the two versions can be disregarded. The only important thing here is that the saying is not a protection-seeking magic spell, but a political allusion, as it was also often found later. However, if Meng Ch ang or his son were able to play with the form of the spring double language in this way as early as the 10th century, then this form must have been relieved of the strict restriction on protection of animals or the mere writing down of names or quotations like the one from the. I-ching have been liberated. From the Sung period, I am not aware of any texts of court spring double-talk. Only Huang Hua-chieh 黄華 節 mentions a passage from the Sung annals, from the monograph on the 5 elements, according to which the description of peach talismans was highly respected by the emperor and the princes at this time: Every year on New Year's Eve (the emperor) the Han-lin to write inscriptions for peachwood talismans to be affixed on New Year's morning to the right and left of the doors of the residential buildings. Cf. the quote in the T ao-fu k ao, p. 58 above para. 2 每 歲 除夕, 命 翰林 爲 詞 題 桃符 正旦 置 寢 門 左右. On the other hand, we have received a number of inscriptions for the so-called spring-beginning notices chun tuan fie h tzh 春 端 中 占 子, which were attached to the door curtains at court, e.g. B. from Ou-yang-Hsiu 歐陽修 17 in his Nei-chih-chi 內 制 集 p. 11 b and von Szu-ma K u a n g 18 in his Collected W e r k e n 16a) I once found this saying stuck on a door leaf. 17) Giles B.D. Nr and Wen-hsiieh-chia Nr) Giles B.D. No. and Wen-hsiieh-chia No.

9 SPRING DOUBLE PROACHES 97 chap. 11, p. 7 b. Their content corresponds to that on the peach wood talismans. Formally, they will most likely have resembled the almost square type of today's door centers 門, こ. They each contain four five- or seven-syllable verses, so that each half has 10 or 14 syllables. In the Slid Sung period, Chou Hui gives 周 輝 19 in his C h i n g - potsa-chih 淸 波 雜志 10, p. lb the following information: A Han-lin secretary20 asked me (or: was asked) for spring texts in order to stick them cut out on the door curtains in the palace on the day of the beginning of spring. 6 (couple) came to the living room of the emperor; One of them reads: one: The infinite space, created in the sky, has renewed itself over the course of the year. The revealed foundation, floating and flowing, reigns equally throughout the ather. The creation, we do not need to make it pleasing by cutting and polishing. It is precisely in this way that we show our deep humanity with self-respect. 5 (couple) came to the living room of the Empress. This means that the spring dress does not need the scent of orchids. W e have no nuisance with embroidery decoration on the collar and hem. Once we got it ourselves in the silk worm palace; Only now do we know how to toil for each strand. Four (couple) came to the court ladies' hall. One of them: ^ The Holy Ruler, he cares for imperial rule all day. Withdrawn, we devote ourselves entirely to the cultivation of the miracle plant of long life. When there is always day at a thousand doors, spring brings (us) loneliness in the mountains. We do not need to stick willow branches to the front of the wagons, .21 19) Geb Cf. Wen-hsiieh-chia Nr) 翰林 書 待詔 had been lower Hanlin officials since T, ang Hstian-tsung- 唐玄宗 (713-55), who had to put into the correct form the memoranda and reports received from everywhere. Or. Folklore II, 7

10 98 ILSE MARTIN Spring notices not only sing of the landscape for the sake of its beauty, but also those of Ou-yang Wen-chung kung (di Ou-yang Hsiu) once contained admonitions and satire, as was the case with Su Tung-p 'O. Szu-ma Wen-kung (i.e. Szu-ma Kuang) writes explicitly 4 of these (type of) poems in the diary he wrote himself. Incidentally, these have become the examples in the Han-lin Academy. Only since the periods Cheng (-ho 和) and Hsiian (-ho 和 &) do the Fhlings initial notices describe peace and bloom. Their prosody is skilful and beautiful to brag about in front of others, much like the palace songs of the T ang22. Recently (published) in a poem by Yang (with the nickname) Ch'eng-chai (and the nickname) T'ing-hsiu23, (which) Yti-t ang chao-chli24 (means), the verses: The spring returned laugh at you old people! PYiii have you also been faithful, Who testifies (today) for the royal ruler? The notices (are intended) to inculcate literary elegance and do not require any skillful verbalization. This poem also stands for it. I recently came to a collection of Yii-t'ang-chi, divided into 8 T, ao. Someone says it's from Li Han-lao25. It also contains early spring notices from the imperial Crown Prince's Palace.翰林 書 待詔 請 春 詞, 以 立春 日 翦 貼 於 禁 中 門 帳.皇帝 闔 六篇, 其一 曰: 漠然 天 造 與 時 新, 根 著 浮 流 一氣 均 萬物 不 須 彫琢 巧, 正如 恭 己 布 深 仁.皇后 闔 五篇, 其一 曰: 春 衣 不用 萬 藺 薰, 領 緣 無 煩 剌 繡 文, 曾 在 蠶 宮 親 織 就, 方 知 縷縷 盡 辛勤.夫人 闇 四篇, 其一 曰: 2 丄 j You stock up on willow cats at the Easter, for example, ChTing-ming festivals 淸 明, which were celebrated in a particularly festive manner at court. About this cf. pit p. 64, last, and p. 65 the first two abs. 22) The main representatives of this type of poetry are Wang Chien 王建, Giles B.D. No. and Wen-hsiieh-chia No. 1417; Hua-jui Fu-jen 花蕊夫人 (concubine of the ruler Meng Ch ang 孟 翔 from Shu 蜀, cf. note 15). Giles B. D. Nr) d. i. Yang Wan-li 楊 萬 虽 Giles B.D. No. 2414, Wenhsiieh-chia No.) 玉堂 is originally a hall name for the later Hanlin Secretariat. Has stood for the entire Hanlin Academy since the Sung period. Cf. T z u - h a i s. V. 25) d. i. Li Ping 李师, cf. Wen-hsiieh-chia Nr Still wrote: Ts ao-t ang chi 草堂 集 草堂 is the private study in contrast to the imperial academy Yii-t, ang 玉堂.

11 FRU HLIN GSD OPPELSPRU CHE 99 聖 主 終 朝 勤 萬 幾, 燕居 專事 養 希夷 千 門 永 畫 春 岑寂, 不用 車 前 揷 柳枝 春 端 帖子 不特 詠 景物 爲 觀 美 歐陽 文忠 公 嘗 离規 諷 其間, 蘇東坡 亦然 司馬溫 公 自 著 日 錄 特 書 此 四 詩, 蓋 爲 玉堂 之 楷 式.自 政 宣 以後 第 形容 太平 盛事.語言 エ 麗 以 相 夸 殆 若 唐 八 宮 詞 耳.近 時 楊誠 齋 廷秀 詩 有 玉堂 着 句 轉 春風 諸 老, 從前 亦 寓 忠, 誰 潙 君王 供 帖子 丁寧 綺語, 不 須 エ 之 句, 是 亦 此 意 頃 得 玉 觉 集, 分爲 八 帙.或 云 李漢 老 所 編者.亦有 皇太子 府 泰 端 帖子 Whether at the Sung-Hofe really no spring doubles, i. H. Inscriptions on peachwood talismans, rewritten every year, I do not dare to decide in spite of the lack of an example. In any case, the people generally changed the (inscriptions on) peach talismans at New Year. Wang An-shih 王安石 26 testifies to this in a poem from New Year's morning: With the crackling of the fireworks, we say goodbye to a year. The spring wind carries warmth into the New Year s white27. The sun shines brightly on over a thousand houses and ten thousand doors, And lots of new Pfisichtalismans are being put in place of the old ones. Cf. Ch ien chi a shih, p. 62. 千家 詩 元旦.爆竹 聲 中 ー 歲 除.春風 送 暧 入 屠 蘇.千 門 萬戶 瞳 瞳 日.總 把 新 桃 換 舊 符. Chou Pi-ta 周 必 大 28 also tells in his Yii-t ang tsac hi 玉堂 雜記 29 that at Silverster on the doors of the halls and on the lintels, the spring notices, the double pillars and the cross-scripts above the doors were changed and that one affixed signs like fu lu shou, or 'once wealth, twice joy, 30, and so on. Cf. Dore II, p 餘 夕 堂 軒 楣 枋 更換 春 帖, 柱 聯 門 額 貼 福祿壽, 一 財 ニ 喜 等 字. 26) Giles B.D. No. 2134, Wen-hsiieh-chia No.) The herb T u-su 屠 蘇 gives the wine its name. The potion is supposed to scare away sicknesses and unhappiness in the new year. It is sweet and sticky, but is now only enjoyed by the Japanese in Beijing. 28) Giles B.D. No. 420, Wen-hstieh-chia Nr) Memoranda of his official experiences of the H a n 1i n - College, cf. Giles I.e. And note) As you can still see from the examples, the joy of playing on words with numbers also extends to the spring double sayings. The connection used here is unusual and is probably called: First of all, wealth; and second (at the same time: double) joy (i.e. above all wedding in the house). In the P ien-tzu 1e i - p i e n chap. 84, p. 4b appears only once in an example text ニ 喜, as the second in a series of three joys that cannot be meant here.

12 100 ILSE MARTIN Texts on peach talismans from the Sung and Yiian periods are also used, for example. Partly with anecdotes about it, handed down at 1. Chou Mi 周密 31 in his Kuei-hsin t s a chih 癸 辛 雜 識 ⑷, quoted in T ao-fu k ao p. 58 above, last column below, column 1 and below, last column p. 59 above, col. 2. r 2. Hung Mai 洪邁 32 in his I -c h * i e n-chih 夷 堅 志 (one) ,. quoted in T ao-fu k ao p. 59 above Sp T, ao Tsung-i 陶 宗儀 33 in his Cho-keng lu 綴 耕 錄; Cape. 27, p.15 b one. The changing of the peach t'alismans mentioned by Wang An-shih will only have been a change of the inscription. But I cannot decide whether this inscription was applied directly to the wood or to a spoilage. The use of paper strips was first mentioned as general in the Ming period. With this the development of the spring double sayings appears in its last stage up to today, and the name used for it today also appears. Ch en Shang-ku 陳 尙 古, with the first name Yiin-chan 雲 瞻, which cannot be dated precisely, but must have been written before 1782 (submission of the catalog on the S zu - ku ch iian-shu containing his work on p), reports in his V er - mixed Conversations of Ch ien-yiin-lo u 簪 雲樓 雜 話: The establishment of the spring double language dates from the Ming Emperor T, ai-tsu34. When he was in Chin-ling (i.e. Nanking) his capital. before New Year's Eve, the imperial directive was suddenly circulated that a pair of spring double-sayings should be affixed to the offices of high and low officials and the people. During an irregular cognito inspection by the emperor (it turned out that) one house happened to have none. Upon request, the emperor learned that it was - (the house) of a pig butcher who had not yet asked anyone to write (the spring double sayings). The emperor wrote in large letters: 3 1) 1232-shortly after 1308, cf. Wen-hsiieh-chia no) (after Giles B.D. no. 894:); cf. Wen-h ^ siiehc h i a Nr) middle of the 14th century. Giles B.D. Nr und W en-h sii ehc h i a The Cho-keng lu appeared Pelliot already has the date 1368 at Giles 1.a in TP. 1924, p. 168 corrected. 34) d. i. the founder of the dynasty, Chu Yiian-chang 朱元 章, ruled Giles B.D. No. 483.

13 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS 101 With both hands he splits the path of life and death. With a knife (stab) he cuts off the roots of right and wrong \ (Then) he threw down the brush and went straight out, and completely surrounded by his guard, he went away. When the emperor went out again later, he saw that (the speeches) were still not hung up. In response to his inquiry, it was said: Aware that it was a piece of writing from His Majesty, we hung it at the top in the main hall35, as a happy omen at the beginning of the year. Then the emperor was very happy. "Furthermore, the emperor honored the T ao An36 with (the following) slogans for his door: Under our dynasty politician the incomparable master, Im Han-li, in the essays first author, cf. the collection Lieh -ch ao shih chi 37. He also honored the Liao Yung-chung38 with a lacquer sign, on which he wrote the 8 characters: 'His merits exceed the crowd of military leaders, his knowledge exceeds the brave soldiers.

14 102 ILSE MARTIN 中堂, 以爲 献 歲 之 祥.帝 大喜.又 太祖 賜 陶 安門 帖 曰: 國 朝 謀略 無雙 士, 翰 苑 文章 第一 家 見 列 朝 詩集 又 賜 廖永忠 以 漆 牌 書: 功 超群 將, 智 邁 雄師 八字 懸於 門 首 見 明 史 本 傳則 門 帖 起 於 明太祖 理 或 然 也. ): Cf. Chao I 趙 H 39: Kai-y ii t s u.ng-k, ao 陔 餘 叢 考 Kap, 30, p. 22 a-b, quoted in T ao-fu k ao p. 58 below Sp Tai Kuan 戴 冠 40 narrated in his Cho-ying t ing pi-chi!灌 經 亭 メ 筆 言 已 from another text of spring double sayings from the beginning of the Ming period: When the palace in Peking was completed41 (the emperor) T, aitsung 太宗 42 ordered the Chieh Chin43 to write turspriiche . He wrote them (in the form of van) poems in the old style44: The sun and moon illuminate the benevolence of Hi-mmel Mountains and rivers give stability to the emperor's abode '北京 営 闕 成 太宗 命 解 縉 畨 門 帖.以 古詩 書 之 曰: H 月光 天 德, 丨 I 河 壯 帝 厝 Cf. T z 'u -hai s. Men fieh p] 帖 Finally, P'an Yung-pi 潘榮 陛 44 in his Y ii eh -1 ing: chi-lan 月 令 集 覽 from the time of Emperor Ch ien-lung () A short summary of the development of the content of 39) Giles BD No. 136, Wen-hsiieh-chia No. His * collected works are named after his first name (hao 號}: 0 u -p e i eh uanc h i 甌 北 全集. 40) Around 1488 civil servant. Preface to the present work by cf. S z Q - ku ch iian-shu K ata 1o gp) Emperor Yung-lo 永樂 (di Ch, eng-tsu 成祖, temple name is T, ai-tsung 太宗> resided in Beijing since 1409 (M ing -shih, P e n-ch i, chap. 6, p. 7106, par. 2r col. 11), initially as a travel stop hsing-tsai 行在. Whether this New Year is meant or one of the following up to 1415, the year of death of Chieh Chin 解 箱, is not to be seen, nor whether it is a matter of New Year's sayings or those stuck on to move in. According to the content, the latter is more likely. Emperor Yung-lo arrived in Beijing in the 3rd month of his 7th year of reign (1409) 4 2) 太宗 is the temple name of Emperor Yung-lo. 43) Cf. Wen-hsiieh-chia Hanlin and head of the writers of the K u -c h i n Lieh-nu-chuan 古今 列 女 傅. 44) The author cannot be determined. The work was available in manuscript at the exhibition of popular iconography in Beijing in July 1942. The T i -ch i n g Sui-shih chi sheng 帝 京 歲時 紀 勝 comes from the same author. Cf exhibition catalog p. 76, No. 19th

15 SPRING DOUBLE PROBLEMS 103 Spring double words that have been generally described with happy expressions for generations. Recently, however, there has been more than one example of excessive bragging rights (i.e. not only exhorting oneself, but also wishing happiness). In addition, one attaches signs like a good spring * (cf. Dore II, p. 304 ), Welcome o joy or happiness, high income and long life. Those who practice the two religions (ie Buddhism and Taoism) write an invocation of Buddha (namely nan-wu 南 無 阿彌陀佛) or the nine heavenly (paradises) correspond to the (year) beginning and in red (letters) the sky has another Rotation completed.然 民俗 傳 流 一 則: 倣古 枋 門 銘 座 之 遺 義 而 近世 或 誇 翊 過 情, 其 例 不一 更 帖 宜春, 迎 鱔, 福祿壽 等 字.習 ニ 教 者 書 佛號 九天 應 元, 及 朱 書 天 行 己 過 者. Cf. Yiieh-ling chi-lan under Ch u-hsi shih i: New Year's Eve related 除夕 事宜. Samples of the spring double sayings at the palace in the Manchu period, but without texts, can be found i mch in-ting Ta Ch ing huit i e n shih-li 欽 定 大 淸 會 典 事例, chap. 956, pp. 4 b and 5 a. I would like to give here a few samples of spring double sayings as I found them in 1942 in a residential area in the north of Beijing. Almost all of them are handwritten, by a calligrapher in the family or among friends, or by Schiilem and feathery men who write spring (inscriptions) Hsieh ch un 寫 春 or shu 書 春, on the street at stalls just before Chinese- New year written. N a g a o p writes exactly about this commercial production of speeches. 348, para. 3. Illiterate people buy a whole set of inscriptions, each comprising a heng p i and a pair of double languages ​​for the house, room door and god's shrine as well as two longitudinal strips for the protective wall and the room. As Nagao points out, the variety of inscriptions on the doors of shops and workshops is infinite, the branch of business and the company name result in innumerable possibilities, as both are expressed in the words on the front door. Cf. Nagao p. 378, last paragraph. These double pronouns beginning with the name and then using it mutatis mutandis are called kuan t, ou tui lien 冠 頭 對聯, the method rhyming with the first character ya t ou 押 頭. 45) Cf. T z, u -h a i s v. Tso-yu ming 座右銘.

16 104 ILSE M ARTIN Apart from political ones, I have not found any more spring double sayings in government offices. It is clear, however, that in such a tremendous time as the present, the individual must show himself ready to face the needs of the people as a whole. To awaken this spirit, the New People's Association Hsin-min-hui 献 民 會 in Beijing has also managed to use the educational tool of the door-beating everywhere in '; in this case, the spring double sayings. From year to year one sees more of the political spring double sayings produced in only a few text variations, which, in contrast to the usual ones, are printed. Of course, you don't come across fluffy political slogans. The Japanese residents of Beijing also stick a printed slogan on or next to the door, albeit only one, for the New Year according to the Gregorian calendar. Pine, plum blossom and bamboo, which defy the harsh winter, can be seen on a white ground and the good luck wish: We congratulate you on the New Years 謹 賀 新年, Sayings are also made for Mongols in Beijing. They contain anti-communist and common East Asian uprising, such as: B. From the crackling fireworks the one sound ruffles up and exterminates the red devils completely! The four colors of the Mongolian banner oscillate, let the yellow race rise again!爆竹 ー 聲 震驚, 赤 魔 盡滅.蒙族 四 色 飄蕩, 黄 種 復興. The temples stick yellow, black-lettered pieces of paper, which differ depending on the religion and the patron saint of the temple in question. Nagao ^ ibt pp. 380/1 Samples from a temple of the gods of war Kuan ti miao 關帝廟, a temple of gods of wealth Ts, a i shen miao 財神廟 and a Taoist monastery tao yuan 道 院. With him p. 380, col. 8 mentioned 2 inked characters tiger and dragon, hu 虎 and lung 龍 on yellow, pointed squares on the door leaves, but I did not find them in Beijing. For this, the gates shan men 山 pg of the Buddhist shrines all bear the slogan The wheel of teaching turns constantly "fa lun ch, ang chuan 法輪 常 轉 on four tou fang, glued as close as possible to one another. At lama temples, on the homes of Mongolian and Tibetan monks , Mongolian and Tibetan sayings are also stuck on. 46) ie red in the middle, white, blue and yellow on both sides.

17 SPRING DOUBLE PROHIBITIONS 105 In terms of content, the inscriptions on private houses fall into the following groups: moral and literary, political, spring and mourning and happy wish-expressions. Aside from the few common general terms, their execution is tied to the position of the occupants, place and religion. W e will therefore also consider the Beijing Timpani Tower, the willow-surrounded lake to the west of it and Catholicism, among others. find mentioned. Finally, it should be pointed out that later in the year one can easily confuse wedding sayings which are later in the year, which are posted on the door of the bride's house, with the then already faded and torn New Year's sayings. I am therefore also listing samples of such sayings here. In the case of engagements, a sign of joy hsi 喜 written in gold as possible is stuck on a large red clay tag on both sides of the door, and double signs of joy shuang hsi 雙喜 = 囍 for weddings. Cf. Man Han 1i -s u, p. 84. As a further example of door slogans pasted during the year, I bring texts that are posted for collection. There are large numbers of handbooks for writing Tlir inscriptions. Texts for this are also in the general reference books Everything without asking others wan shih pu ch iu jen 萬事 不求人 etc. together with various instructions such as letter holder ch, ih 如 尺牘, calendar, basic contract texts, San-tzu-ching 三字經 and Po-chia -hsing 百家姓 and spells. I found many of the things I had collected here. If not made up ad hoc, as the slogans related to place or religion or the ironic slogans must be, the rare slogans are copied or passed down orally. When I asked, I was repeatedly shown the calligrapher's notebook to compare the text. Poetry was previously taught in all Chinese schools, initially in such a way that the students had to insert characters in sayings. Later they had to add a second verse to a given first. At the New Year, the poetry and writing test yiian-tan shih pi 元旦 試 筆 was held at home. In Beijing, the new turpris is already stuck on New Year's Eve, but in the past also occasionally on the beginning of spring, which does not have to coincide with the New Year celebrations, and in Yunnan on New Year's Eve. Cf. Nagao p. 350 third from last column

18 106 ILSE M ARTIN The spring double sayings are so popular in Beijing that they are not only presented at annual markets as a humorous dialogue, but have also been included in the radio program. Spring double sayings 春聯 c ^ er wittily completed spring double sayings ch iao tui ch, u n lien 巧 對 春聯 are recited under the name Zwiegessprach hsiang-sheng ネ 目 聲. The headline, which determines the content, corresponds in form to the heng p, i, the first main verse is usually elegant, the second silly-ridiculous. It is from this tension that the attraction of this conversation arises. Mention of the topic in the cross verse and execution in the two long verses, this compilation should also apply to the door sayings. I have not been able to recognize them often, but still give the door inscriptions in their closed form of heng p, i and frame-language and, if necessary, flapping papers. Some individual typical, today, however, z. T, outdated heng p i can be found at B o u i 11 a r d, p. 138/9.

19 SPRING DOUBLE PROHIBITIONS 107 HP a) b) 五福 臨門 Wuz fu2 lin 2 men2 May the 5 lucky givers1 lean towards this house c) 爲 善 最 樂 Wei2 shan4 tsui4 Zo4 Doing good brings great pleasure d) 萬象 更新 Wan4 hsiang4 keng1 hsin renewed e) 詩書 門 第 Shih1 shu1 men2 ti4 House of Classical Scriptures2 KT 雲 獻 (現) 吉祥 星 聯 福壽 Yiln2 hsien4 chi2 hsiang2 hsing1 lien2 fu2 shou4 花開 富貴竹 報平安; pao4. pring2 an1 clouds, shows signs of happiness, stars, juxtaposes happiness and long life! Flowers of wealth and prestige> open up, rocket crashes3, bring peace and tranquility4! M H 瑞 日 祥雲 Jui4 jih 4 hsiang2 yiln2 KCh 和風 甘雨 Ho2 feng1 kan1 yu ^ Promising sun, clouds of good omens5 Gentle wind and hot rain6 Cf. below HP 26c 1) These are originally in Shu-ching, 嘗 經, LEGGE p. 343: Long life shou 翥, wealth fu 富, health k, ang ning 康寧, love of virtue yu hao 攸 好 and dying of old age k, ao chung ming 考 終 命. Shown as 5 bats in N OZAKI No. 13/14. 2) Even in the Han era, the books of songs (SHIH-CHING) and of documents (SHU-CHING) were generally used for classical writings. 3) Rockets in bamboo shells were used in the CHING CH U SUI-SHIH-CHI p. la, 1 mentioned for the New Year celebrations. Cf. N O ZAKI No. 8.

20 108 ILSE MARTIN 4) Also with NAGAO, p) Also occurs independently as HP. 6) 甘雨 is May rain, who makes the plants grow, 2. HP a) 接 福 迎祥 t Chieh1fu z ying2 hsiang2 r Receive happiness, approve the good omens1 b) 福 属 崇 藤 'F u2 yn ^ ch'ung2 hsi 艺 The happy dwelling place high joy c) 普天同慶 P u3fie n 1t ung2ch'ing ^ May all be lucky together under the all-covering sky2 d) 元 復 始 I 4 yuan2 fua shih 艺 A new (year) has again started KT 向陽 門 第 春 常 在 (到) Hsiang ^ yang2 men2 ti4 ch un1 ch ang2 tsai4 (tao4) 積善 人家 * 慶 有餘 Chi1 shan4 jen2 chia1 cking ^ yv? yii2 In the house facing the light, the spring lives constantly. The family, where good deeds are heaped, happiness in abundance! 1) This HP is shown with 納 instead of dargestellt at NOZAKI N r. 15, the first part in No.) At N O ZA KI No. 181, 附 mentioned but not explained. 3. HP a) 長發 其 祥 Ch ang2 fa1 ch i2 hsiang2 May the signs of his happiness appear for a long time1 b) 忠厚 傳 家 Chung1 hou4 ch, uan2 chia1 "May loyalty and honesty be passed on in the family2 c) 八 節 康寧 Pa1 chieh2 k ang1 ning2 In all 8 sections of the year3 Health

21 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS 109 KT 日 耀 紫微 迎 瑞氣 Jih ^ yuehatzuz wei1 ying2 ju ia chyia, 天 開 黄 道 集 嘉祥 T ien1 aiz huang2, too4 chi2 chia1 hsiang2 In the shine of the sun the polar star has opened the breath of the sky , and on the yellow path (of happiness) the favorable accidentals gather 1) From the SHIH-CHING 詩經, 高 頌, 县 發 (No. 304) (penultimate song), V. STRAUSS p. 515: Recognized as its sign long. LEGGE p. 368: And the omens (of her dignity) had long since appeared. 2) Upper gallery of the popular MH saying N r) d. see the 4 Chinese beginnings of the seasons, the solstices and aquinoxes. 4) 紫微 is the imperial stem. Here is an allusion * to a heavenly government. 4. HP a) Cf. HP 3 b b) Cf. HP 2 dc) 福壽 安康 Fuz shou4 an1 k ang1 Happiness and long life, peace and health KT 瑞 日 祥雲 彌 宇宙 1) Cf.1, MH Jui ^ jih A hsiang2 yiln2, m i2 yitb chou4 春風 和氣 滿 乾坤 Ch ' un1feng1 ho2 ch i4 mart? ch'ien2 k'un1 May the sun and clouds of happiness1 fill the firmament, indicating good things. Let space be pregnant with a spring wind and mild air. 5. HP a) b) Cf. HP 1 d c) 萬福 來 朝 Wan4fu 2 lai2 ch ao2 May all lucky givers come here to court K T 天 增 歲月 入 增 壽 T ien1 tseng1 sui4 yiiehajen2 tseng1 shou4 春 滿 乾坤 福滿 門 Ch un1manbch, Ch un1manbch, ien2

22 1110 ILSE MARTIN As the sky joins the years and moons, so let man's life be lengthened As spring fills the whole universe, so let this house of happiness be full1 YP (courtyard) 鴻 藤, hung2 with immeasurable joy2V) NAGAO p V). Expression already from the Sung period: 鴻禧 累 輻 駢 賫 翕 漯 Hung2 hsi3 lei4 fu2 p ien2 lau hsi1 chen1 Immeasurable joy, happiness after the rewards and the most abundant 40, MU SIK MONOG RAPH IE). other, interconnected (SU N G / A N N A LEN Kap HP a) Cf.HP 1 ab) 國 恩 家 慶 Kuo2 en1 chia1 eh * inga The state is gracious, therefore our clan1 KT 春風 春 月 春光 好 Ch'un1 feng1 ch un1 yileha ch un1 kuang1 hao3 人 (仁) 得 (德) 人 (仁) 心 人 (仁) 壽 長 Jen2 teh2 jen2 hsin1 jen2 shou4 ch ang2 With the spring wind and spring moon the sight of spring is already2 The person who won another heart (through human virtue and human insight), his human life becomes long 1) over the figurative Illustration cf. PIT p. 95 No. 11 translated: ^ Imperial grace and domestic happiness. According to BOUILLA RD p. 139.1. 2) 春光 好 is a melody name? .Us of the 詞 poetry. 7. HP a) 吉慶 有餘 Chi2 eh'ing ^ yuz yil2 Happiness and prosperity in abundance1 b) 多 福 多 壽 To1fu2to1 shou41 Good luck, a long life2

23 KT 又 是 一年 芳草 綠 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS 111 YuAshih4 24 nien2 fang1 ts ao3 lu4 依然 十里 杏花 魟 I 1 mn2 shih2 li2, hsing4 him1 hung2 After a year the fragrant grass glows again As always, the apricot flowers glow red for 10 miles 1) Cf. N OZAKI No.) Two of the three many 三多 Cf. Note 4 to 41. HP a) 三陽 開泰 San1 yang2 k ai1 fai ^ Let the threefold light principle open a blooming period1 b) 福 自 天 來 Fu2 tzuafie n 1 lai2 happiness come from heaven2 KT 一 元 ニ 氣 三陽 泰 / 4 yilan2 erh ^ ch, i4 san1 yang2 t ai4 四季 (時) 五福 六 同 (和) 春 Szil4 chi4 (shih2) wus fu2 lu4 fun g 2 (ho2) ch un1 Ein3 beginning4, 2 atmospheres5, grandeur of the three-fold principle four seasons, 5 happiness factors6, the 6 cardinal points7 in spring l) According to Chinese philosophical speculation, a certain trigram from the I-CHING is assigned to each month. That of the first month is the trigram T ai 泰 (cf. W ILHELM, p. 54), which contains three yang strokes. T ai means peace, bloom, greatness. Thus, the first month should be the rising 撣 to these blessings. The analogous translation of this saying is: May the first month be the beginning of a blooming season. I have found other explanations for this, which I would like to reproduce here without, however, agreeing with them: a) 三陽 means the three positive positions of spring. I. Spring is assigned to the element wood. This is the third of the five elements, so it is at a position with an odd, i.e. H. a Y a n g - Z a h l.ii. The element wood is in the east, in the direction of the ascent, i.e. a yang direction. III. The first month is the one with the cycle sign Y in 寅. There are also three cycle signs assigned to the east, the first of which is the sign 寅. So east and first month have the same cycle sign. Since Yin is positive because it is aimed at the East, the first month assigned to it is also positive. Cf. CH, IE N H AN SHU 75, p. 0548, Sp. 2: 晉 灼 日: 木 數 三, 寅 在 東方, 木 爲之 始 故 日: 參 陽.

24 112 ILSE MARTIN b) This learned explanation is opposed to a popular one. From the winter solstice on, the light principle rises again. It gets stronger on the 30th day and with the Yii shui 雨水 part of the year has gained full control in the 1st month. By the summer solstice it increases to six times its strength. These two explanations refer only to the expression H 陽, so they are not binding for the whole saying. Since the Mongol period, he has often been depicted in his homophone, wherever only an ornamental can be attached: painted, woven, (a K ^ o-szu scroll is from the Sung period mentioned in SHIH-CHU PAO CH I 石 顏 寶 贫 n, 乾 清宮) embroidered, burned, engraved etc; cf. N O ZA KI Nr. Three sheep are shown 羊 Dar, on which a sun is shining 開泰 after the clouds have dispersed. 2) Cf. the saying in NAGAO pp. 373/4: 三陽 從 地 起 San1 yang2 ts, ung2 ti4 ch is 五福 自 天 來 W u3 fu2 tzu4 t ien1 lai2 The threefold light principle rises out of the earth The 5 happiness givers may come from heaven Cf. also N O ZA K I No. 24 3) On the play on words with numbers cf. Introduction Note) Cf. HP 2 d 5) d. see Yang and Yin 陽陰 6) Cf. HP 1 a 7) D. s. The 4 cardinal points, zenith and nadir. They denote the AIL symbol for the last three characters of this saying are deer lu 鹿 and cranes ho H together in a spring landscape, or only 6 cranes 六 鷀 in spring. Cf. N O ZA K I No. 75 鶴 鹿 同 春 9. HP a) Cf. HP 8 b b) 天下太平 T ien1hsia4 trai4p, ing2 peace on earth K T 1st version 萬里 風 和 光 生 柳葉 Wan4 Uz feng1 ho2 kvang1 sheng1 l% v? yeh4 五 陵 春暖 色 泛 桃花 Wuz ling2 ch un1 nuanz se4 fan4 trao2 hua1 For miles the wind is gentle, and in the shimmer the willow leaves grew out of the 5 Grabern1 (from Ch ang-an) the spring is tepid, and in the The peach blossoms shine brightly everywhere

25 FRU HLIN GSD OPPELSPRU CHE version 瑞 日 芝蘭 光 柳葉 / m 4 jih 4 chih1 lan2 kuang1 Kuz yeha 五 陵 春色 泛 桃花 Wuz ling2 ch un1 se4 fan4 t ao2 hua1 Promising sun, magic mushroom and iris in their shimmering shine in the 5 graves1 (from Ch ^ ng-an) everywhere the peach blossoms. 1) 五 陵 It can be assumed that the number 5 is only set to correspond to that of the Oberstollen. With regard to the peach blossom, the 五 陵 identical 武陵 from T AO C H IE N 陶 抱, 桃花源 IE in T AO CHING C H IEH CHI, chap. 6, col. 2 武陵 春 has then become a melody name in the 詞 poetry. 10. HP a) 斗 柄 回 寅 Tou3 ping3 hui2 yin2 The drawbar of the great bar1 has returned to the cycle sign yin b) 大地 恩波 Ta4 ti4 en1 pol Everywhere on the wide earth floods of grace KT 堦 前 春色 濃 如 許 (秀) Chieh1ch ien2 ch un1se4 nung2 ju 2 hsil3 (hsiu4 戶外 嵐 光 翠 欲 流 (舒) H u4 wai4 lan2 kmafig1 tsfui4 yiiauu2 (shu1) In front of level 2 Lenzesanblick oh so strong (lovely) In front of the door outside the misty shimmer to open up) 4 KC h 鴻禧 迎 門 Hung2 'hsi 这 ying2, men2 May this house approach immeasurable joy 1) 斗 柄 are the three imperial, literature-related stars in the big bare, 寅 is the cycle symbol of the first Chinese month. cf. note on HP 8 a. This star is supposed to promise good luck for the beginning of the year on New Year's Day. 2) The steps in the main hall are meant. The ancestors look to the young family members. 3) The young rice seeds and the willow leaves. 4) This double saying actually belongs to an inner door. This is how it appears in No. 50, where it is to be added. Or. Folklore II, 8

26 114 ILSE MARTIN 11.HP a) 紫氣 東 來 Tzuz ch, i4 tung1 lai2 A purple cloud comes from the east1 b) Cf. HP 6 a KT Cf. Upper gallery 5 春暖花開 福滿 \.門 Ch un1nuan2, hua1 fe ai2 fu2 man3men2 The spring is tepid, the flowers are blooming, happiness fills the whole house 1) Allusion1 to TU FU 杜甫 4th verse of the 4th poem in the series C h, iu hsing 秋 興: 東 來 紫氣滿 函 關. Its source is the KUAN LIN G Y IN N E I CHUAN 關 令尹 內 傳. Cf. TZ, U-HAI s. V. The purple cloud indicates the coming of the Lao Tzu. A pictorial representation of it from the hand of the CH,::, IU Y IN G 仇 英 from the Ming period is mentioned in PI TIEN CHU L IN 秘 殿 珠 林, 12. HP a) 道 德普 救 Tao4 teh2 pfu ^ chiu ^ Logos and virtue save all b) Cf. HP 1 d K T ​​柏葉 椒 花 作 頌 爲 瑞 Po2 yeh4 chiao ^ hua1 tso ^ sunga wei2 ju ia 編 I, 秀清 村.龍 纒 肇 歲 鳳 紀 之 春 Lung2 ch an2 chao4 sui4 feng4 c / zi4 chih1 ch un1 twigs of thuja, peppers1, if they congratulate us, it may be a good omen. When the dragons twist around a new year2, it may be the spring of a phoenix year3 'YP (H of) 麟 筆 書 元 L in2 pi3 shu1 yuan2 The unicorn brush4 writes: a new beginning 1) Symbols of long life (evergreen) and fertility (the peppers contain many seeds). the courtyard, with thuja twigs one illuminates on the New Year's night on which the ancestors are sacrificed. Chiao fang 椒 房 was called the apartment of the empress in the Han period. The walls were plastered with mortar mixed with pepper essence. Cf. CH, IE N HAN SHU 66, p. 0524, 4, p. 1-3 and HOU HAN SHU 7 1, p. 0789.1. A type of New Year's wine is also seasoned with pepper and thuja, cf. CHING C H, U SU I SHIH CHI p. 1 a Spp. 7/8: IN THE MONTH CALENDAR FOR ALL 4 STANDS (from TS U I SHIH 確實 from the Han era) it says: The first day

27 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS 115 after the winter sacrifice means little new year. You then visit your parents. When pepper wine is served, the youngsters start drinking. The pepper is the essence of the drawbar of the great bar (cf. note 1 to 10). Taking it makes the Xorper easy and empowered to grow old. Thuja (leaves) are fairy medicines that make excellent youngsters out of us. I note that the name of the pepper * is the beginning, chao, namely the beginning of the year, the first month, the first day. Taste is precious, and it keeps all diseases that come from outside us away. With this in mind, they are used on Little New Years. In the Han dynasty the (actual) New Year celebrations were celebrated with it.四民 月 令 云: 過 臘 一日 謂 之 小 歲.拜賀 君親, 進 椒 酒, 從小 起.椒 是 玉衡 星 精 服 之, 令人 身輕 能 老 栢 是 仙藥, 成 公子.安 椒 花 銘 則 日: 摩 惟 歲首 月 正 元日 厥 味 惟 珍, 蠲 除 酉 疾.是 知 小 歲 則 用 之.漢朝 元 正 則 行 之. 2) Every year there is a certain number of dragons (between 3 and 5.1942: 6), which indicates the amount of rain to be expected. As heavenly and imperial animals, the dragons are first on the calendar. 3) The appearance of the Phonix is ​​a sign of peace and order in the land. The connection 風 紀 is unusable. 4) The unicorn, the symbol of the wise, has a special relationship with Xonfucius, whose Ch'un ch iu closes with the unicorn catch. Your 13th HP KT MH YP 瑞 日 初 呈 Jui ^ jih Ach'u1 ch eng2 The auspicious sun shows up again for the first time 瘦 影 在 窻 梅 得 月 Shou4 ying3 tsai ^ ch'uang1 meiz teh2 yiieha 凉 雪 滿地 竹籠 煙Liang2 hsuehz man2 ti4 chu2 lung2 yen1 A thin shadow falls in my window the plums (twigs) 1 have gotten moonlight ^ Icy snow spreads over the whole earth from the bamboo it steams like from a basket2 芝蘭 君子 性 Chih1 lan2 chun1 tzh3 hsing ^ 松柏 古人 心 Sung1po4kus jen2 hsin1 The character of the noble (evergreen) conifers resembles fragrant herbs, the heart of the men of antiquity (H of) 延 釐. Yen2 hsi 艺 Get lucky

28 116 ILSE M ARTIN YP (g e g e n i e r) 出門 見 喜 'ch'u1 men2 chien4 hsi3 When you go out, you may encounter pleasant things 1) The plum blossom dares to venture out into the cold as early as the New Year. It is therefore considered the most elegant New Year's flower. 2) d.i. the basket for steaming the food, every saying actually belongs on a door in the garden or courtyard.へ 3) This generally valid saying, stuck on here, is often found painted on the door leaf. 4) 重, read as usual li2, stands for 禮 here. 14. HP a) Cf. HP 3 b KT b) Cf. HP 11 a 五 風 十 雨 唐虞 時 (皆爲 瑞) Wu3 feng1 shih2 Tang2 Yil2 shih2 (chieh1 wei2 ju ia) r 萬紫千紅 富貴 春 (總是 春) WanAtzuz ch ien1himg2fu4kuei4 ch un1 (tsungz shih4 ch un1) every 5 days wind 10 days of rain1 then we have again the age of T'ang (di Emperor Yao) and Yii (di Emperor Shun) (all of which are good Omina) Ten thousand fold purple, thousand fold red that is a spring of wealth and honor (all who do the spring from2) MH 氣 轉 鴻鈞 Ch i4 chimnbhung2 chiln1 陽 開泰 運 Yang2 k ai2 t ai4 yun4 Lenze mood rolls off in infinite harmony The light opens a glorious destiny3]) 五 風雨 occurs only as HP, z. B. in -35. They are already mentioned in LUN-HENG 論 衡, chap.楚 應 in the Han period as mentioned by the Confucians in reference to a time of peace. Cf. N O ZA KI N o. 129 pft. 2) This version of the Unterollen is quoted from CHU H SI 朱 黨: Der Lenzta ^ 春日; cf. CHyIE N CH IA SHIH p) Cf. Note 1 to HP ... KT 一片 彩霞 曉 J 4 p ien4 ts ai3 hsia2 yin 炉 hsiao1jih 4 萬 條 紅燭 動 春 - Waw1fiao 2 hung2 chu * tung * ch un1 t ien1

29 SPRING DOUBLE PROBLEMS 117 Everywhere you look, colorful morning clouds1 that receive the rising sun red candles support the spring sky2 1) 彩霞 stands for the colorful decoration of the people, their apartments and devices: chieh ts ai 結 彩. 2) With New Year's wishes. 16. HP a) Cf. HP 1 a 1) an der b) 四時 (季) 平安 Szu4 shih2 (chi4) p, ing2 an1 .: Peace through all 4 seasons1 KT 天 臨 華蓋 星辰 近 T ien1 lin2 hua2 Icai4 hsing1 ch en2 chin4 地 接 蓬壺 雨露.深 TiAchieh1 p, eng2 hu2 yuz hiashun1 In the sky (the sun) comes close to the umbrella star2 On earth one receives abundant rain and dew (of the blessings) from P'eng hu (di P, eng la i 蓬萊, island of the blessed in the Eastern Sea ) MH 忠厚 傳 家 久 遠) Chung1 hou4 ch, uan2 chia1 chiu3 (yuan2) 2) 3) 詩書 繼 世 長 (昌) Shih1 shu1 chiashih4 ch ang2 (ch ang1) May loyalty and honesty be passed on in this family and the classic books to persist through long generations (to continue to bloom) 3 Cf. NOZAKI No. 10, which emphasizes the frequent use in the spring-style house door. One of the 12 constellations of the zodiac. Also available as a four-syllable at NAGAO, p. 372 mentioned. 17.HP 門前 五福 Men2 ch ien2 wu3 fu 2 In front of the door the 5 Gliicksgiiter1 K T 春風 桃柳 鳴金 馬 Ch un1 feng1 t ao2 Uuz ming2 chin1 ma3 晴雪 梅花 照 玉堂 Ch ing2 hsueh3 mei2 hua1 chao4 yii4 ^ fan g 2

30 118 ILSE MARTIN The bilge wind sings through peaches and willows. (-Griin) around your house2 The plum blossoms are reflected in the glowing snow in front of your nephrite hall2. 1) 五福 cf. note 1 to 1., 2) 金馬 and 玉堂 are names for the Hanlin Academy. Cf. also introduction, bronze horses stood in front of it. Hence the name 金馬. Both Stollea allude to the imperial academy in honor of the host. 18. HP Cf. HP 1 a KT 福海 壽山 春 浩蕩 Fu2 haiz shou4 shan1 ch un1 hao4 tang4 瑤 林琪 樹 日 光華 Yao2 lin2 ch / i2 shu4 jih 4 kuang1 hua2 Happiness like the (east) sea, a long life1 like the (Siid- > Mountain, that brings the spring with its mighty; Big On the nephrite forest and the jasper trees the sun shines in its splendor2 MH on almost squarexn paper 萬戶 春風 陶 禮樂 Wan4 hu4 ch un1 feng1 tao 1 li3 yileha 百年 事業 紹 箕裘 Po4 nien1 shih4 yeh4 shao4 chi2 ch iu 2 All the families delight in rites and music in the spring breeze. The same job has been inherited in the family for 100 years «1) Abbreviated from the saying of SH IH - CH IN G, ierten, which is repeatedly quoted as a wish for happiness , 天保 No. 166 (v. Gtrauss p. 264, 3): And how the Siidberg's age 如 南山 之 壽 LEGGE p cf. N O ZAKI No.) The lower halves of the two tunnels are also popular with officials' apartments with praise of the imperial grace and wish for good government. Cf. NAGAO p HP Cf. HP 1 a MH (mostly highlighted) 春暖 觀 魚躍 Ch un1 nmm% kuan1 yil2 yileh4 秋 高 聽 (聞) 鹿鳴 Ch iu 1 kao1 t ing1 (tven2) lu4 ming2

31 FRU HLIN GSD OPPELSPRU CHE 119 In spring, when it is tepid, you can watch the fish jumping cheerfully. In autumn when the sky is high, you hear the deer shrine1 1) One of the most common expressions. Only very few on the door frame. 20. H P Cf. HP 2 d MH (paper twice as long as it is wide) 春 爲 ー 歲首 Ch un1 wei2 z4 sui4 shou3 21.HP 宜春 / 2 ch un1 Have a good spring1 梅 占 百花 魁 Mei2 chdn4 po4 hua1 k'uei2 The spring is the whole Annual head The plum blossom takes the lead among all the flowers.KT 春露 秋霜 當 爲 德 Ch'un1 lu4 ch'iu1 shuang1 tang1 wei2 teh2 雲 蒸 霞 蔚 留 (得) _ 書 Yun2 cheng1 hsia2 wei4 liu2 (teh2) shih1 shu1 Lenztau2 and autumn ripe demand virtue The long cloud haze3and the shine of the morning leaves us with the classic mist Preserving Scriptures 1) Cf. Introduction p. 103 para. 2. 2) The dew stands consistently for benefits. To be thought of here as a praise to the residents of the house. 3) Ascent in office like a rising haze of clouds. 22. HP 人壽年豐 Jen2 shou4 nien2 feng1 Long life and a fruitful year1 KT 一點 陽 和 外 i / 4 tien3 yang2, ho2 hsiang4 waiachuan 各 萬象 和氣 望 中 旋 WanAhsiang ^ ho2 ch i / 1 wang ^ chung1 hsiian2 A tiny light , in harmony s develops outwards * All appearances, in harmony they circle with the gaze. to the middle ^

32 120 ILSE MARTIN MH 耕 讀 兩 般 能 教 子 Keng1 tu2 Uangz pan1 neng2 chiao41izu% 勤儉 二字 可 治家 Ch'in2 chien さ erhatzu41jc o3 ch / ih2 chia1 Agriculture and study 一 With this diligence and thrift you can raise your children one should order his house for both of them 1) via the illustration cf. GRUBE 138 Nr, Nr. 11 and BOU ILLA RD 23. HP 壹 元 和氣 I 4 yilan2 ho2 ch i4 All year long harmony - KT 天 開 美景 風雲 靜 T ien1 k, ai2 meiz ching3 feng1 yiln2 ching4 春 到 人間 氣象 新 Ch un1 too4 jen chien1 ch , i4 hsiang41hsin1 The sky opens a beautiful landscape for us, wind and clouds are still. The spring moves in with people1, air and things are new MH 竹 報平安 Chu2 pao ^ p ing2 an1 Rocket crash2, bring peace and quiet 1) From CHANG SHIH張 栻 (WEN-HSUEH-CHIA No. 2559), 立卷 偶 成 in CH IE N CHIA SHIH p) Cf. Note 3 to HP 福 如 東海 F u2ju z tung1 haiz happiness like the east sea (so rich) 1 KT 春日 得意 花 千里 Ch un1jih 4 teh2i4 hua1ch ien1w 秋月 揚 輝 桂 一枝 Ch iu 1 yileh41yang2 hui1 kueia i4 chih1 Springlust and flowers A thousand miles of autumnal (full) moon spreads its shine3, and there is a sprig of blood in it

33 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS Cf. Note 1 to 18 and N O ZAKI No. 137 附 2) Cf. N O ZA KI N r.129 春風得意. In order to counteract the 月 of the Unterollen with something antithetical, the symbol 風 has been replaced by 日. 3) 秋月 揚 輝 Cf. T AO YUAN-MING CHI 陶淵明 集, II, p) There is a hare in the moon, stamping the powder of eternal life in the mortar, and a branch of the room. Osmanthus fragrans Lour, blooms at the time of the full autumn moon.桂 is also ^ literally considered 貴 and is represented as its symbol. Cf. PIT, p. 95 Nr HP Cf. HP 1 a K T 春 臨 柳色 翠環 戶 Ch un1 lin2 Uv? seats'ui4 huan2 hu4 風 送 梅花 香 滿 門 Feng1 sung4 mei2 hua1 hsiang1 man3 men2 As the spring approaches, the house of willows now surrounds Kingfisher green The wind carries the plum blossom scent, which now the YP (courtyard) Cf. HP 22 whole residence is filled 26. HP a) 喜慶 大 來 Hsi 各 ch ingi ta Mogen joy and signs of happiness come to a large extent b) Cf. HP 11 a c) 吉羊 (祥).如意 Chi2 yang2 (di hsiang2) ju 2 i4 Happiness and fulfillment of the Wlinsche1 KT 文 成 蕉 葉 書 猶 綠 Wen2 ch eng2 chiao1 yeh4 shu1 yy ^ IH4 吟 到 梅花 句 亦 香 Yin2 tao ^ mei2 hua1 hua1 chiiaz4 hblatts an essay When I have finished writing, even the writing appears green. If I declaim to (the word) plum blossom, then even the verse smells

34 122 ILSE MARTIN 1) BOUILLARD restricts the meaning from 如意 to 吉祥: May happiness come to you, just as you wish it (p. 138,8). N O ZA K I No. 6 I consider this 如意: for common. Cf. 2) Actually for a garden pavilion. This is a double saying that contains a praise of things 咏物 對 _ 27. HP Cf. HP 2 d, here the garden plumage. KT 奎 壁 光 華文盛 v 曰 K fuei2 p i4 ^ kuang1 hua2 wen2 sheng4 jih A 乾坤 淸 春 治 隆 時 Ch, ien2 k'un1 ch ing1 t ai 毛 ch'ih2 lung2 shih2 At the (stars) K, uei and P i1 shining splendor days of cultural blooms In the purity and grandeur of the firmament a time of outstanding government 1) 娶 in the Great Bar is the star belonging to literature, 壁 is one of the 28 Chinese zodiac images, with Pegasus and Andromeda. 28. HP 堯 天舜 日 Yao2 t ien1shun 毛 jih A As in the day-en of Yao and Shun1 (so peaceful) KT 春 回 禹 甸 山河 外 Ch un1 hui2 Yil3 tien4 shan1 ho2 waia 人 在 堯 天 雨露 中 Jen2 tsai4 , Yao2 fie n 1 yu2, lu4 chung1 Spring has returned outside by the mountains and rivers of the Yii1zuriick area. And people live under the rain and dew (the graces) of the sky of Yao2 1) di China. Cf, TZ * U-HAI s.v. 2) 堯 天 means a blooming period. Here HP and KT complement each other to form a uniform picture of the ideal times of the 3 great emperors. 29. HP Cf. HP 1 act 寒梅 吐 玉 冰霜 少 Han2 mei2 t, uz ping1 shuang1 shao3 楊柳 垂 金 雨露 深 Yang2Uu3 ch uei2 chin1 y il2, lu4 shen1 ispeit of the winter plum tree jasper, then ice and rime are (only) sides1 that depends on the willows Gold falls, then dew and rain fall abundantly2

35 SPRING DOUBLE PROBLEMS 123 1) 冰 霖 少 from CHANG SHIH. Cf. Note I to 23. 2) Grube gives this double saying again as an inscription for the cold weather period table, with little changed under tunnel; cf. GRUBE, p HP 人傑地靈 Jen2 chieh2 ti4 ling2 The people towering, the place has a magical effect1 kt 淑 氣 自 天 來 春 融 麗 曰 Shu2 ch, i4 tzu4 t ien1 lai2 ch un1 jung2 li 各 祥光 隨 隨 歲 轉 Hsuan2 kr iaai3ho2feng1 Mild air comes from heaven, o lenzlich melting, beautiful sun! In its course, auspicious shine follows the year o happy cloud haze, o warm wind! M H 旭日 臨門 早 Hsit3 jih 41lin2 men2 tsaoz 春光 及第 先 Ch un1 kuang1 chi2 ti4 hsien1 The morning sun comes to this dwelling early The spring's shine reaches this house2 first3 1) From the KT 36. 2) 及第 is ambiguous. It also means: pass the exam. The lower tunnel then meant: Be the first to pass the exam in the springtime glory. 3) According to this saying the house is high and with your gate to the east. W ith spring and daylight, happiness and blessings should also move in here first. 31.HP 富貴 有餘 Fu4 ktceiayuz yu2 wealth and prestige in abundance1 KT 夭 上 四時 春 作 首 T ien1 shang4 szuashih2 ch un1 tso4 shou3 人間 五 福壽 爲 先 Jen2 chien2 wuz fu 2 shou4 white seasons: up in the sky 4 seasons is their head Among the people 5 happiness factors2: long life is their noblest3 '

36 124 ILSE M ARTIN saying. so m 1) The so common fish shape of lanterns, flags etc. symbolizes this fish yii 魚 reads "Abundance 餘 equal; cf. PIT p. 95 No. 9 and N OZAKI 2) Cf. Note 1 to 1. 3) This KT also at NAGAO p HP 大地 回春 Ta4 ti4 hui2 ch un1 On the whole wide earth the FWlhling has returned again KT 風月 雙 淸 雲霞 五色 Feng1yueh41shttang1 ch ing1 yiln2 hsia2 wu3 se4 詩書 三味 山水 san san Shih1 shu1. Pa and moonlight both fresh clouds and morning red five-colored colorful ^ Anyone who knows songs and documents 1 threefold, the sound from mountain 1) Cf. note 2 to 1. and water the eight types of music2 2 八音 the eight instrument classes: metal chin 金, stone shih石, strings szu 絲, bamboo chu, calabashes p, ao 飽, sound tu 土, lpder ko 革 and wood must stand together for the music in general. Cf; NO ZAKI No. 71, p The corresponding instruments bell ching are shown鍾, sound stone ch ing 磐, pansflote hsiao S Zeither ch in 琴, mouth organ sheng 签, ocarina hsiin 壎, drum ku 鼓 and rattle chu 祝 33. HP 滿 門 吉慶Man3 men2 chi2 cking ^ Let this house be full of happiness1 KT 龍飛鳳舞 昇平 世 Lun 沪 fei1 fengawuz sheng1 p ing2 shih41 燕 語 鶯歌 錦繡 春 Yen4 yubying1 ko1 chin さ hsiu1 ch un1 The dragon flies, the phoenix dances, this is a world of Friedens2 The swallow chirps, the oriole sings: a spring embroidered with colorful flowers. 1) Also occurs when the two pairs of rhymes are rearranged. 2) 煮 -7 ^ is the highest degree of peace. Cf. TZ'U-HAI s.v.

37 34. HP 平 安吉慶 P, ing2 an1 chi2 ch ing4 Peace and happiness1 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS 125 KT 吉星高照 平安 第 Chi2 hsing1 kao1 chao4 p ing2 an1 ti4 積善 人家 慶 有餘 Chi1 shan4 jen2 chia1 ch'ing ^ yuz yii2 Mogen The high shine down on a peaceful dwelling2 In the house, whose inhabitants pile up good (deeds), happiness reigns in abundance 1) Cf. NOZAKI no) 吉星高照 also occurs as an independent HP. Cf. NO ZA KI No. 128, p HP KT 五 風 十 雨 Wuz feng1shih2 yus Wind every 5 days and rain every 10 days 暖 日 映 山 調 元氣 Nttanz jih 4 ying4 shan1 fiao 2 yuan2 ch, i4 東風 舞 樹 入 殘 寒 Tung1 feng1 wu3 ju A ts, an2 han2 When the warm sun shines on the mountains, then (the world) comes into harmony with the primal principle of creation * If the east wind plays in the trees, then the last cold period begins 1) Cf. KT H P 惠 迪吉 H u が ti 之 chi2. Obeying the right brings happiness1 MH 物 華 天寶 日 Wu2 hua2 fie n 1 pao3 jih ^ 人傑地靈 時 Jen2 chieh2 ti4 ling2 shih2 This is the day on which all beings are splendid and nature is a (right) gem. And the time may it because the people are excellent and the earth is magical2

38 126 ILSE MARTIN YP (opposite) 截 穀 Ch ienz kuz Alles Gute3 YP (courtyard) 滿 院 生輝 Manz yilan4 sheng1 hui1 In the whole courtyard an'xeuchten 1) Cf. S H U - C H IN G, 大禹 謀, LEGGE p 54. The TZ, U-HAI here gives ti in the meaning 道 the right path; cf. TZ, U-HAI ,.廸. 2) Cf. W A N G PO 王勃 (; GILES B. D. No. and WEN-HSUEH CHIA No. 1143): T, eng wang ko hsii 勝 王 閣 序 in KU W EN H SIA N G CHU I I, p) Cf. Introduction, Note HP Cf. HP 1 a KT 璧合 珠 聯 三元 集 慶 P i4 ho2 chu1 lien2 san1yuan2 chi2 ch ing41 花開 鳥 囀 一 徑 春 臨 H ua1 k ai2 niaoz chuanz i4 ching4 ch / un1 lin2 The Nephritschei.be halves together, Pearls strung together for a triple beginning2 the signs of luck gather here, flowers blooming, the birdsong of spring tend to lean directly here 1) Can also allude to a married couple of high standing on both sides or the whole Oberstollen to a family of dignitaries. The picture is the coincidence of the moon and the sun and the auspicious juxtaposition of certain planets. More detailed in KT 54. 2) Where a threefold beginning of year, month and day coincides.三元 can also be used in the calendar meaning of the 15th day of the 1st, 7th and 10. be meant. Month The second part of the Oberstollen would then mean: May the signs of luck gather here at all three fixed dates. ~ A third option is to read as chieh yiian 解元, hui yiian 會 元 and chuang yiian 狀元, the best in the three levels of state exams. Then the second half of the Oberstollen reads: May we be able to congratulate the three best candidates. Precise knowledge of the family circumstances must be decisive here. ~ For the illustration of 三元 cf. GRUBE p. 95 No. 10 and N O ZAKI Nr H P 人 好心 實 Jen2 hao3 hsin1 shih2 Good the person, truly the heart

39 SPRING DOUBLE PROBLEMS 127 KT 翠竹 靑 松 和 臘 雪 Ts ui4 chu2 ch ing1 sung1 ho2 la4 hsuehb 碧桃 紅杏 笑 春風 P i4 fao 2 hung2 hsing4 hsiaoach un1 feng1 Kingfisher green peaches Bamboo and large pines snow pines in the month of winter and red apricot blossoms laugh in the spring wind1 KCh i) upper edge: 萬 代 長久 Wan ^ tai4 chfang2 chiu 名 To infinite generations2 margins: 招財 童子 至, Chao1 ts, ai2 t ung2 tzuz chih4 利市 仙 官 來 Li4 shih4 hsien1, lai2 kuanbei1 Boy, to whom you beckon wealth. Come on, divine dignitary who brings profit in the market3 Middle: in 2 vertical rows: 大 發財 源 Ta4 fa1 ts ai2 yilanz The great sources of getting rich4 of the>) margins: 一 門 永 康泰 (太) J4 m.en2 yungz k ang1t, ai4 十二月 平安 Shih2 erha yileha p ing2 an1 The whole house always health and prosperity every 12 months5 Peace and quiet middle: 六 合同 春 Lu4 ho2 fu ng 2 ch un1 The whole of all enjoys the spring together6

40 128 ILSE M ARTIN c) Margins: 江山 千古 秀 Chiang1shan1ch ien1ku3hsiu4 花木 四時 春 Hua1 mu4 szu4 shih2 ch un1 Rivers and mountains are lovely through 1000 aons Flowers and buildings have the spring all 4 seasons through: Cf. HP 8 b 1) Actually garden original. Describes the transition from last winter to the first spring moon. 2) Shown as 萬 代 县 泰 at N O ZAKI No. 42. 3) Cf. PIT p. 96 No. 14 The divine steward of the good market. 4) PIT p. 96 No. 13 describes the illustration of this. This K C K is best suited for charging. 5) Here the parallelism is not complete. 6) Cf. Note 7 to 8. 7) Also common as an independent KT. A similar KCh is described in GRUBE p. 96 N r HP Cf. HP 16 b K T 錦綉 春 明 花 富貴 Chin3 hsiu4 ch un1 ming2 hua1 fua kui ^ 琅 轩 風 靜 竹 平安 Lang2 kan1 feng1 chmgachu2 p mg2 an1 Spring shines in the brocade pile, and from the flowers. wealth and honor appear over the (carpet of blood from) red nephrite, the wind blows gently, and the bamboo (rockets) announce peace and quiet to us. On two protruding bar ends on both sides of the HP are also painted (mostly in gold) the symbols Peace and Quiet 平安 40. HP Cf. HP 1 d K T ​​九重 春色 從 天降: Chiuz ch ung2 ch un1 sel ts ung2 fie n 1 chiang4 三 錫 鴻 恩 指日 來 San1 hsiz hung2 en1 chih% jih A lai2 1

41 FRU HLIN GSD OPPELSPRU CHE 129 On the nine-fold (gated Imperial Palace) 1 the spring has descended from heaven The three examinations of grace2 generous grace before the day is over, she comes up 1) Cf. TU FU 杜甫, 和 家 舍人 早朝 in CH IE N CH IA SHIH p 九重 for palace already appears in E LEG IE N VON CH U 楚辭: 君 門 號 九重. House has a front to the imperial palace. Cf. N O ZAKI Nr Das here 2) They are called po hsiieh 博學, hung tz'u 鴻 詞 odei 辭 and en k o 恩科 and are held outside of the imperial triennial examinations cheng k, o 正 科. 41.HP 春 王 正月 Ch un1 wang2 cheng ^ yiieh ^ In spring, in the king's first month KT 福壽 階 前 歌 西 祿 F u2 shou4 chieh1 ch ien2 ko1 poalua 康寧堂 上 慶 三多 K ang1 ning2 fan g 2 shang4 ch , ing4 san1 to1 happiness and long life! Outside the steps sings of the rich blessing'2 health and peace! Up there in hall 3 the triple ReicWiche wants 4 man man 1) This is the beginning of the CH UN CH, IU. Cf. LEGGE p. 3 of the translation and p. 55 of the Prolegomena (t) translation of the KUNG-YANG COMMENT to this). In addition to the literary allusion, the wish for the political unification of China1 in strong hands is supposed to be expressed. Text also with the following under tunnel: 天子 萬年 T ien1 tzu3 wan4 nien2 Cheers to the Son of Heaven In the imperial era this (cf. the description in N O ZA KI No. 158) appeared as an independent double saying. 2) v. STRAUSS translates p, 263, 2: You have received all heavenly grace, legge, p. 256 accordingly. The place is SHIH CH IN G, 小雅 天保 (No. 166). Cf. NOZAKI no) d. see the family elders. The boys live in front of the steps of the main hall. Cf. Note 2 to) 三多 is at CHUANG-TZU 莊子, 外 篇 p. 188: Wealth, long life and sons 富, 壽, 男子. They are represented with a citrus-like fruit fo shou 佛手, cf. PIT p. 95 No. 8. Cf. also N O ZAKI N o. 18 and 23 Or. Folklore II, 9

42 130 ILSE MARTIN 42. HP a) Cf. HP 1 d b) Cf. HP 41 K T 梅 柳渡江 春 噴.藻 擒 筆 堪 作 賦 Mei2 Uuz tuachiang1ch / un1p'en1 tsao3 li2p is kfanl tso4 か 4 雲霞 出海 睹 熏 胃 摘 艷 可 傳 杯 Yun2hsia2ch u1hai3tu3hsiinin1hs -Biaranids (-Glip'en1 both river banks it has now become Lenz. Now you spit meticulousness and, with the brush twitching, you might want to forge verses. From the dawn the sun rises over the sea.One burns incense and sips sensual beauty, then one should let the cup rotate1 1) The first 5 syllables of the two tunnels also appear alone, but because of the tone of the syllables chun and do in reverse order. Antithetical verses must end on an uneven tone in the upper gallery and on an even tone in the lower gallery. They don't rhyme. In the case of new ones, the tones of the modern colloquial language, as I am specifying them here, are sometimes used instead of the written language HP 咸 與 維新 Hsien2 y il3, wei2 hsin1 Let us all work together on the renewal of KT 堂上 詩書 綿 世 澤 T ang2 shang4 shih1 shu1 mien2 shih4 tse2 門前 桃 柳艷春 光 Men2 ch ien2 t'ao2 liu3 yen4 ch un1 kuang1 Up in the hall, the classic books1 connect the generations who received (imperial) grace2 In front of the tilre peaches and willows make the luscious sight sensual already 1) Cf. Note, 2 to 1. 2) The connection between HP and this Oberstollen shows that it is the house of an educated person who is willing to work for the state on the basis of his or her previous education. 44. HP 二字 平安 r Erh4 tzuap ing2 an1 Just two words: peace and quiet

43 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS 131 KT 雲 堃 五色 文明 盛 Yiln2 ch, eng2 wu3 se4 wen2 wing2 sheng4 運 際 三陽 世 澤 長 Yiin4 chi4 san1 yang2 shih41 tse2 ch, ang2 When the clouds are brightly colored (colorful) then the culture is cleared up (of the country's) fate threefold sunny1 we then receive generationally rich blessings 1) An interpretation pointing to the season would also be justified here: "If the stars touch the threefold male principle again on their orbit ... Cf. A n m .1 zu HP 厚德 載 福 Hou4 teh2 tsai4 fu2 The virtue of honesty brings happiness KT 景色 淸 幽 高 梧 月 霽 Ching さ se4 ch ing1 yu1 kao1 wu2 yileha chi4 風光 明媚 啼鳥 舂 情 Feng1 kuana1ming2 niao3 mei ^ t i un1 ch ing2 The land is pure and quiet, and behind the high Wu (-t ung- trees) the moon has become clear The view is clear and graceful, and singing birds (put us in) a spring mood MH (lacquered) 忠厚 傅 _久 Chung1 hou ^ ch, uan2 chia1 chiu 名 和平 處世 長 "Ho2 p ing2 ch, u3 shih4 ch'ang2 May faithfulness and honesty be This family will pass it on for a long time1 And maintain peacefulness in interaction through long generations 1) As HP 3b, only extended from the quadrupedal form that is common for HP to 5 syllables, the number customary for double speakers. 46. ​​HP Cf. HP 1 a K T 一統 太平 眞 富貴 t ung3 t ai4 p, ing2 chen1 fu4 kui ^ 九重 春色 大 文章 Chiw ch ung2 ch un1 seata4 wen2 chang1

44 132 ILSE MARTIN When there was still unity and peace, "1 there was wealth and honor. Spring as in the nine-fold imperial palace (with gates) 2 has dressed up in the most beautiful way3 1) It was once the bankel song, even with songs War and times of unrest. The bad situation is then illustrated only once in this introduction. 2) Cf. A n m.1 to 40. S) 大 文章 Expression from LIT AI-PO CHI 李 太白 集 II, p. 9 7, last column 47. HP 龍 纒 肇 歲 Lung2 ch an2 chaoasuia The dragons wind their way around a New Year1 KT 旭日 融和 開 柳 眼 HsiP jih 4jung2 ho2 k'ai2 Uu3 yenz 春風 榣 曳 送 蠶 聲 Ch un1feng1yao2 yeh4 sung4 ying1 sheng1 in the morning its melt erolfs the buds of the willows The spring wind hurls us at the orioles tones 1) As KT HP 一 門 五福 I 4men2wuz fu 2 The whole house the 5 Gliicksgiiter1 KT 百 五日 寒食 兩 潤 I 4 pai3 wu3 jih 4 han2 shih2 yiiz 力 m4 '二十 四 番 花 信風, 淸 E rhashih2 szuafan1hua1hsin4 feng1 ch ing1 After 105 days2, at the (festival of) cold food, the rain falls fertile All 24 Times when the wind blows from the (each different) 1) Cf. A n m.1 to 1. Flowers3 brings news, it is fresh 2) On the 105th day (Chinese payment, which counts December 22nd) after the winter solstice, i. i. on the eve of the ChMng-ming festival or on this itself. About Ch, ing-ming 淸 明 cf. GRUBE p. 64/65. 3) Each of the approximately fifteen-day 24 annual periods has its own flower.

45 SPRING DOUBLE SPORTS HP 瑞 日 祥雲, Ju iajih 4 hsiang2 yun2 Happy sun and promising clouds1 KT 美: 1 良辰 喜 見 天時 初 轉 春 Meiz ching 名 Hang2ch, en2ksiz chien41fie n 1sh ih重新 逢 月1chuan 幸各 ch 又ih 風光風光 u1chuan 幸各 ch Feng1kuang1chi4yilehA hsing4feng2jen2 shih4yu ^ ch ung2hsin1 In the beautiful country at a good hour we are delighted to see how nature at this time begins to circling through the spring. With the sight of the moon that has become clear, it is good that human things are also renewed. KC h 合家歡 樂_ Ho2 chia1 huan1 lo ^ The united family joy and pleasure 1) Like Oberstollen auf Tiirfliigel MH HP Cf. Introduction Note 8 KT 萬 悅 千 歡 壽 貴 無極 WanAyueh4 ch'ien1 huan1 shou4 kui4 wu2 chi2 五福 四 利 善 慶 之 源 Wuz fu 2, szu4 li4, shan4 chfingachih1 yuan2 1) Cf, 2) 四 利 to find something pleasant 1000 joys, long life and reputation without limits The 5 happiness givers1, the 4 demands2, sources of good and happiness A n m.1 zu HP Cf. HP 1 d is also in PEIW EN YUN FU and in P, IE N TZU LE IP IE N not KT 爆竹 兩三 聲 人間 是 歲 PaoAchu2liang3 sa7i1sheng1jen2 chien1 shih4 sui4 梅花 四五 ienz 天下 皆 春 Mei2 hua'1 szh4 ienu3 tienz tienz hsia4 chieh1 ch / un1 A few rattling rockets, that is New Year for the people1 45 plum blossom points, then everywhere on earth there is spring

46 134 ILSE MARTIN 1) Cf. the poem by W ANG AN-SHIH Introduction p) At the winter solstice 9 times 9 plum blossoms are entered in a large square ko 格 and one is marked off every day on this calendar, u 圖, 塗. The beginning of spring falls on the 45th day, i.e. the middle flower. Such a calendar, on which the weather is sometimes also entered, is called Hsiao han f u 消 寒. This type and a similar one brings .grube p. 87 / HP Cf. HP 1 a MH (2 Tou fang each other) 平 安吉慶 P ing2 an1 chi2 ch, inga Frieden und Gliick1 53. HP 1) Cf. N O ZA K I N o. 159 附. Cf. HP 34th KT 1) The N O ZAKI No. Cf. HP 2 b 海晏 河 淸 咸 歌 盛世 H ais yen4 ho1 ch ing1 hsien2 ko1 sheng ^ shiha 民 安 物 阜 共 樂 界 平 M in1an1 wu2 fouakung4 loasheng1 pfingt The sea is ^ latt, the river is clear1, and everything sings from the prime The people secured, the money piled up, together we rejoice in peace2 means a time of peace and the appearance of a saint> 昇 取 cf. note 2 on HP 迪吉 Ti2 chi2 Obeying the law, Gltick1 brings beam ends as in KT 39, KT 山川 初霞 - 用作 霖雨 Shan1 chhtcm1 ch u1 ling2 yunga tsoalin2 yii6 日月 合璧 蔚 爲 文章 Jih 4 yileh4 ho2 pi4 wei41wei2 wen2 chang1 Mountains and rivers except for spirit power and use them for soothing rain and sun. and moon fit together like two halves of a nephrite disc2 and form an ornament3 on the blue of the nephrite sky3 Cf.

47 1) Cf. A n m.1 to 36. FRU HLIN GSD OPPELSPRU CHE 135 2) Quote from CH IE N HAN SHU chap. 21 p. 374, 4, col. 25: Sonrie and moon fit together like two halves of a nephrite disc, and the 5 planets are lined up like a string of pearls 日月 如 合 壁 五星 如 連珠. Cf. KT 37. Since this auspicious appearance occurs very laterally, the meaning of 合璧 to opposition1 of sun and moon tui chao 對照 was expanded, their position in the same constellation jih ytieh tung kung 日月 同 宮 and the position of threesomes Stars around one. common center point san ho chao 三 合照. It was not until the Manclschu period that the meaning was restricted again by the astronomical office ch, in t, ie n chien 欽 天 監. on the conjunction, d. H. Position in the same meridian of the moon and sun ho shuo 合 靱. Cf. TZ U-HAI s. V. 3) This saying, which is more suitable for a garden door, was written in li shu 錄 with the addition of seal script. 55. HP Cf. HP 11 KT 日月 垂 熙 三 朔 同 臨 首 祚 JihA yileh4 ch, vi2 hsi1 san1 shuo4 fun g 2 lin2 shou3 tsoa 天地 交 泰 九重 獨 得 先 春 T ien1 ti41chiao1 t, cdachiuz ch ung2 tu2 teh2 from. Hsien Sun and moon shine down a shine, then after all three calendars we come to the new year. If glory2 connects heaven and earth, the 9-fold (gated imperial palace) 3 receives the first spring 1) 三 朝 are the three Chinese calendars. The Hsia 夏 celebrated the beginning of the year - at dawn on the first day of the 13th month, the Y in 段 at the rooster - scream on the first day of the 12th month, the Chou 周 on the first day of the 12th month at midnight. again. From the Han to the end of the Ch ^ ing period the Hsia calendar was gait 2) Cf. the end of A n m. 1 to 8. 3) Cf. A n m.1 on HP Like the New Year's saying pasted by the Japanese residents of Beijing. Cf. Introduction p. 104, para. 2 K T 靑 蓮 柳 眼 窺 睹 畫 Ch ing1 lien2 liuz yenz fc u i1 ch ing2 hua4 紅 點 桃 唇 筅 暖 暉 Hung1 tien3 trao2 ch un2 hsiao4 nuan3 hui1