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The great sins. Imam Shams ad-din adh-dhahabi (n.h.)

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1 The great sins] ملا [German German Imam Schams ad-din adh-dhahabi (n.h.) Revision and commentary: Muhyiddin Misto Translation: Abdullah Khattab Revised by: Farouk Abu Anas

2 كتاب الكباي ر »اللغة الا ملانية« ام شمس ادلين اذلهيب مراجعة وتعليق: ي ادالين مستو ألوالين مستو ألوالين مستو ألوالين مستوال قمب ب:

3 بسم االله الرحمن الرحيم In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful The great sins Table of contents Foreword by the publisher ... 8 Foreword by the auditor The importance of Al-Kabair Big and small sins The life of the Imam Adh-Dhahabi Foreword by the author The 1 Sin: Associating a partner with Allah The 2nd sin: Killing a person The 3rd sin: The sorcery (magic) The 4th sin: The omission of the daily compulsory prayer The 5th sin: Not giving the Zakah The 6th sin: The omission of the daily compulsory prayer. Sin: Plaguing Parents. The 7th Sin: The Devouring Interest. The 8th Sin: The Unlawful Consumption of an Orphan's Property

4 The 9th sin: Ascribing something to the prophet that he did not say The 10th sin: The unsubstantiated failure to fast in the month of Ramadan The 11th sin: The flight from the battlefield The 12th sin: The fornication (adultery) The 13th sin. Sin: The Deceitful Ruler The 14th Sin: The Consumption Of Alcohol Even If You Don't Get Drunk The 15th Sin: The Arrogance, Self-Praise, Self-Glorification and Complacency The 16th Sin: The False Testimony The 17th Sin: Homosexuality ( Liwat) The 18th sin: slandering a virtuous Muslim woman. The 19th sin: stealing the spoils of war, the treasury (Baytu l-mal) or the zakah. The 20th sin: inflicting injustice by illegally appropriating the property of others 21. Sin: Theft The 22nd sin: The highway robbery The 23rd sin: The perjury The 24th sin: The frequent lying The 25th sin: The suicide The 26th sin: The unjust judge The 27th sin: The Dayyuth (The cuckold)

5 The 28th sin: Imitating the opposite sex The 29th sin: The Muhallil and the Muhallal-Lahu The 30th sin: Eating carrion, pork, blood The 31st sin: The carelessness of urine The 32nd sin: That who raise taxes or taxes unjustified (blackmailers, Makkas) The 33rd sin: The hypocrisy / eye servicing (Riya) The 34th sin: The embezzlement / the betrayal The 35th sin: The concealment of knowledge, and the pursuit of knowledge with worldly intent. The 36th sin: Holding up one's own good deeds. The 37th sin: The denial of providence (Qadar). The 38th sin: Secretly digging out the secrets of others. 132 The 39th sin: Cursing (insulting) The 40th sin: The betrayal of the superior (Amir) and the like The 41st sin: Belief in fortune tellers and magicians The 42nd sin: The rebellion of the wife against her husband The 43. Sin: Disregard of family rights The 44th sin: The pictorial representation of living beings The 45th sin: The intriguer (the informant) The 46th sin: The lamentation in case of misfortune The 47th sin: The insulting of the parentage

6 The 48th sin: Injustice (crossing borders) The 49th sin: The armed rebellion against the commander and the takfir because of great sins The 50th sin: To harm or offend the Muslims 158 The 51st sin: The followers To inflict suffering on Allah or to harbor enmity against them. The 52nd Sin: The elongation of the garment [or clothing] due to arrogance or the like. The 53rd Sin: Wearing silk and gold for men. The 54th Sin: The escape of the slave His master The 55th sin: The offering of a sacrifice to someone other than Allah The 56th sin: Moving the landmarks of lands (يض االله عنهم (Sahaba The 57th sin: Offending the The 58th sin: Insulting the Ansar The 59th sin: The caller to go astray or who starts a bad deed. The 60th sin: Lengthening the hair (also wigs), opening the interdental spaces, and tattooing. The 61st sin: Aligning an iron counterpart stood on his brother. The 62nd sin: to ascribe oneself to someone other than the biological father. The 63rd sin: Belief in misfortune. The 64th sin: Drinking from gold / silver vessels

7 The 65th sin: The dispute that does not take place because of the law. The 66th sin: The castration, the unjustified punishment or the torture of a slave. The 67th sin: Cheating when measuring or weighing. The 68th sin: Before the punishment To feel safe from Allah The 69th sin: Giving up hope in the mercy of Allah The 70th sin: Ingratitude for a good deed The 71st sin: To deny others the unnecessary and excess water The 72nd sin: Branding on the face of an animal The 73rd Sin: The Gambling The 74th Sin: Committing Sins in Masjid-i Haram The 75th Sin: Not staying away from Friday prayer to pray alone The 76th Sin: Spying on Muslims and revealing their secrets Other hadiths various sins, which may also be major sins

8 Foreword by the publisher In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah. We thank him, we ask him for help and we ask his forgiveness. With Him we seek refuge from our own wickedness and from our bad deeds. Whom Allah guides, there is no one who can mislead him. And whomever He misleads, there is no one to guide him. We testify that there is no god but Allah whom it is due to serve. And we testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Since the book The Great Sins of Imam Adh-Dhahabi has not yet been translated into German, we saw it as necessary to translate the revised and commented edition of Muhyiddin Misto into German in order to also make a contribution to the errors, to correct what has been done so far in this field while preserving this valuable work. After extensive research, Muhyiddin Misto found the handwritten Arabic original and revised it by evaluating and classifying the hadiths and commenting on them with footnotes. This work closes the possible gaps in the area of ​​halal (what is permitted) and haram (what is forbidden), and thus makes a valuable contribution to enlightening humanity in this area. It also teaches them the 8th grade

9 To understand clearly and unequivocally the commandments and prohibitions of their Lord. And peace and blessings be upon all those who follow the guidance. 9

10 Preface by the Auditor Praise be to Allah. Peace and blessings be upon His Messenger Muhammad, his family and his companions. When I (Muhyiddin Misto) decided to revise the book Al-Kabair (The Great Sins) by Imam Adh-Dhahabi, I found it appropriate to research the existing copies beforehand. The first thing I came across was the copy which was revised by Muhammad Abdur-Razzaq Hamza and published in Cairo in 1356 after the Hijra. While I respect this author's knowledge and virtues, his revision lacks consistency and accuracy. He did not give any information about the copies on which his book is based, nor did he orientate himself to the true hadith sources when evaluating the hadiths. In addition, the first edition of the book contains a large number of errors, whether in the transmission or in other matters. The book was subsequently distributed in this flawed state. The second edition of this book was printed in Damascus in 1395 after the Hijra. Not only does this book not correspond to the handwritten original, no, further errors have also been added. 10

11 In 1398 after the Hijra, another edition appeared in Aleppo, which this time was revised by Abdur-Rahman Fahri. He alone has uncovered at least ten errors in the books published by then. Even so, its revision also has flaws in consistency and accuracy. This author also does not base the book on the handwritten original, but on the revisions that have already been published. At present, all editions of the book called Al-Kabair, all of which are ascribed to Imam Adh-Dhahabi, contain numerous weak and fabricated hadiths, advice and narratives that do not correspond to the original. It is inconceivable that Imam Adh-Dhahabi of all people, who was a forerunner of his time in the hadith studies Jarh and Ta dil and a celebrity in general in hadith matters, should not have mentioned the respective classification of the hadiths listed in his book. It is precisely from him that he is expected to mention whether the hadiths are true or not. And this not least because Adh-Dhahabi is said to have always advised his students never to narrate a hadith without knowing its classification, i.e. without knowing whether it is a true or weak hadith. 11

12 The version of Al-Kabair currently on the market contains up to forty weak and fabricated hadiths. Imam Adh-Dhahabi himself mentioned in his other books (Talkhis and Mizanu l-i tidal) that these hadiths were made up and made it explicitly clear that Hakim, who also narrated these hadiths, was doing no good with them. So I decided, and rolled up my sleeves, to revise and publish the book called Al-Kabair, ascribed to Imam Adh-Dhahabi and tainted with weak and fictional hadiths, advice and stories, according to its original. First I found the original of his book Al-Kabair, handwritten by Imam Adh-Dhahabi in 1272 after the Hijra, in the Arif Library in Medina. I noticed that the original was completely different and in no way corresponded to the copies in circulation. Later I wrote a letter to the Az-Zahiriyya library in Damascus asking them to send the copies of Al-Kabair there. Then they sent me two copies; one that was written in the year 879 after the hijra and one that was written in the time of Imam Adh-Dhahabi. I then compared these specimens with the others and found that the original by Imam Adh-Dhahabi was not Kabairu 1-12, as is generally assumed

13 Kubra (the big book of the big sins), but Kabairu s-sughra (the little book of the big sins). I realized that it was not the actual book of Adh-Dhahabi that was being brought out, but the great book of great sins. Apparently this was done for the sole reason that Kabairu l-kubra was the size of the book Kabairu s-sughra. So she alone was sold and the original, called Kabairu s-sughra, ended up on library shelves. How did I find out that the original is the book called Kabairu s-Sughra? 1 Kabairu l-kubra contains 70 sins. It starts with the first and ends with the seventieth. But the book called Kabairu s-sughra contains 76 sins. 2 In the Kabairu s-sughra I noticed that it did not contain any made-up hadiths and that the Adh-Dhahabi marked some of the hadiths quoted as weak. But in Kabairu l-kubra there are a lot of invented and weak hadiths. 3 The Kabairu l-Kubra, which is widespread on the market, contains an explanation from the Sahaba or other people after the quoted Quranic verses, whereby the origins of some of these comments are true, but those of the others are unknown. But precisely this approach is not a common practice of hadith scholars. Already 13

14 not at all that of Imam Adh-Dhahabi, whose style is well known from his other books. 4 In Kabairu s-sughra, Imam Adh-Dhahabi dealt with the topic of further hadiths on various sins, which are probably also major sins, in a separate chapter at the end of his book. But this section is completely absent from Kabairu l-kubra. How can it then be that Kabairu s-sughra is greater than Kabairu l-kubra? What was the reason that Kabairu l-kubra was printed and published and not the actual book Kabairu s-sughra? It could be that the handwritten original of Adh-Dhahabi somehow fell into the hands of a Fakih 1 or some other scholar. He could then have taken over the Quranic verses and the hadiths from the original, but ignored the comments of Adh-Dhahabi. Subsequently, that person very likely commented on the Quranic verses and hadiths with his own views, stories, advice and dreams and thus rewrote the book. Since the name of the author was not mentioned on this new copy, it is very likely that there was only 1 Fakih: Islamic Legal Scholar 14

15 by the well-known author of the book Al-Kabair, the famous scholar Imam Adh-Dhahabi. So that the name Imam Adh-Dhahabi was added to this specimen as well. These two specimens later came into the hands of Sheikh Muhammad Hamza, who then made the claim that both versions were made by Imam Adh-Dhahabi - one named Kabairu l-kubra and the other called Kabairu s-sughra. Then he went to the revision of Kabairu l-kubra, and paid no attention to Kabairu s-sughra, since he considered the former to be the larger of the two. The peculiarities of the original copies: 1 The one copy of the Zahiriyya library: This book, written by Muhammad ibn Ahmad Asch-Shafi'i and registered under the number 8778, consists of 63 pages. Muhammad ibn Ahmad asch-Shaafi'i was personally commissioned by Imam Adh-Dhahabi to write this book. 2 The other copy of the Zahiriyya Library: This book was written by Isa ibn Muhammad 'Aliyyu l-Shafi'i. It is registered under the number 4669 and comprises 61 pages. It was written in 878. 3 The copy of the Arif Hizmat library in Medina: the directory number is 123/217. You 15

16 was written by Muhammad Said al-Husni al-Qudsi in 1272 and has 105 pages. What are the special features of this edition? a I have compared all three copies and corrected any incompleteness. b I have given all the verses of the Quran that are recited in this edition with their respective Sura names and verse numbers. c I have given the respective classifications of the hadiths and have provided references to their sources and their narrators. d I have briefly explained some difficult-to-understand terms and issues to avoid possible misunderstandings (these are highlighted in brackets and in a different font). I also presented some information about Al-Kabair. Muhyiddin Misto (15th Schaban H.1403) 16

17 The Meaning of Al-Kabair In the famous Arabic dictionary Lisanu l- 'Arab, the meaning of Kabair is explained as follows: Al-Kibr (singular of Kabair): Great sin and a thing for which Allah promises fire. Kibratu: Similar to Al-Kibr, but Al-Kibr contains a form of the superlative. Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: They are those who guard against great sins and wickedness. (Sura an-najm, Aya 32) (Lisaanu l-'arab) In the hadiths, great sins are mentioned in many places Major sins are acts that Allah has forbidden to practice such as unjustified killing of a person, adultery, fleeing the battlefield, etc. Scholars have made a variety of explanations regarding the terminological meaning of Kabair, some of them performed Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani in his work Fathu l-bari.Rafii said the following in his book Sharhu l-Kabir: Great sins are things that require punishment. And things that are evidently threatened or intimidated in the book (Qur'an) or in the Sunnah for the offense. 17th

18 Al-Mawardi said in his book Al-Hawi: Of all sins, those are great and need punishment. Or its evildoers can be shown to be exposed to a threat in the book or in the Sunnah. Ibn Abdi s-salam said: There is no clear definition of the meaning of the Great Sins. But the best definition is as follows: A great sin is any sin that is clearly demonstrably described, which is trivialized in the practice and not taken seriously. Some other scholars said: Any sin that carries a threat or condemnation. Ibn s-salah said: Your signs are; that they need punishment, that their evildoers in the book or in the Sunnah are threatened with torment, fire or something similar, that the evildoers are characterized with Fisq (disobedience, debauchery) and confronted with condemnation. The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Every sin that brings the cause into the fire is one of the great sins. 18

19 Hassan al-basri said: Any sin that Allah associates with fire is a major sin. The best definition of great sin is that of Imam Qurtubi, which he wrote down in his book Mifham. There Imam Qurtubi said: All those sins belong to the great sins, which in the book (Qur'an), in the Sunnah and according to the consensus of the scholars, are also referred to as such; this also includes all those offenses that are subject to severe punishment for the perpetrator; or for whom there is a fixed form of punishment in the Sharia; or those offenses that are strictly discouraged from being carried out. According to this, every sin in the Qur'an or in the hadiths of the level saheeh or hasan must be affixed with Fisq (disobedience, debauchery) or with condemnation or with a threat in order to be considered a major sin at all. 19th

20 Big and small sins Imam Qurtubi said the following in his interpretation of the Qur'an: Allah (عاىل) says: If you guard yourselves against the big sins, which have been forbidden to you, We will hide your faults and raise you to an honorable level. (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 31) In this verse of the Quran, Allah (عاىل) forbids a number of sins. What He forbids here are the great sins. Allah (عاىل) promises that He will forgive all those of their small sins if they guard against the offenses that are called great sins. This verse of the Qur'an clearly shows that sins are divided into small and large. Based on this, some exegeses from the Qur'an and legal scholars have stated that, based on the promise of Allah's small sins, such as touching or looking at a woman who has been forbidden to yourself, may find forgiveness, provided that the major sins are of course avoided. However, that does not mean that all small sins are completely forgiven. Another verse of the Qur'an on this subject says: The repentance which is accepted by Allah is the repentance of those who immediately ask for forgiveness after doing evil in ignorance. Your regret is 20

21 it that Allah accepts. Allah is All-Knowing and All-Wise. (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 17) In this verse of the Qur'an, Allah (عاىل) proclaims that He may also forgive the great sins. The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: The compulsory prayer for the individual parts of the day, and the period from one Friday prayer to another, as well as from one Ramadan to the next, are each an atonement for sins, except for the great ones. The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص once said from the pulpit: I swear by Allah, in Whose hands my life is. He repeated this three times and was silent. Touched by these words, everyone present was overcome with sadness, so that they began to Then the Messenger of Allah (عليه وسلم) االله said: (ص There is no servant of Allah who performs his daily compulsory prayers, keeps his fast in the month of Ramadan and watches over the seven great sins, other than all eight on the day of judgment Gates of Paradise are open. Then let him leave the following verse from the Qur'an: If you guard yourselves against the great sins which have been forbidden to you, We will hide your mistakes (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 31) 21

22 That the small sins, such as looking at a self-forbidden woman, are forgiven if one is on guard against the great sins, there is harmony between the Qur'an and the Sunna. Scholars studying the basics of Islam have said the following regarding this matter: Avoidance of major sins does not necessarily entail forgiveness of minor sins. But according to the prevailing conjecture, the guiding hope and the written wish of Allah, their forgiveness is very likely. For if we were to say that by avoiding the great sins the small ones are definitely forgiven, we would have made the commission of the small sins permissible. This in turn contradicts the Islamic Sharia. Qushayri Abdu r-rahim said: According to a true view, the small sins are also among the great sins. Only in direct comparison with one another are certain sins greater or lesser than others. The wisdom behind this is to protect the servants from all sin, great or small. As some scholars have said, committing sins is equivalent to adopting an attitude opposed to Allah. 22nd

23 Others said, don't look at whether the sin is small or great, just see who you rebel against. From this perspective, all sins are great. The judge (Qadi) Abu Bakr ibn Tayyib, Abu Ishaq Al-Isfarayini, Abu Muali, Abu Nasr Abdur-Rahim Al-Quschayri and others said: Certain sins were called minor sins in direct comparison with another. For example, adultery is a minor sin in direct comparison to kufr (unbelief). Kissing a self-forbidden woman is also a minor sin in direct comparison to adultery. We do not believe that sin is forgiven just because one is wary of another. Because every sin is one of the great. Except for kufr and shirk, their forgiveness is in the hands of Allah alone. For Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: Allah will not forgive that shirk is committed against Him. But He forgives what is less than this, whom He wills. (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 116): (بحانه وتعاىل (Allah In another verse of the Quran says 23

24 If you watch out for the great sins that have been forbidden to you ... (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 31) The great sins referred to in this verse are Shirk and Kufr. The great sins mentioned in both verses of the Qur'an and which Allah will not forgive under any circumstances and which He warns us about are Shirk, Kufr and their respective facets. There is a rule in the legal foundations of Islam which states that evidence that contains a general judgment is to be interpreted according to the evidence that contains bound (restricted) judgments. Allah (عاىل) says: But He forgives what is less than this to whom He wills. (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 116) ص االله (Allah's Abu Umama narrated a hadith from the Messenger that underlines this verse of the Qur'an (عليه وسلم. It says: Allah has put fire on everyone and has declared paradise haram on everyone who lives through Perjury improperly appropriated the property of a Muslim. Thereupon those present asked: O Messenger of Allah! Even if the ص االله (sent thing is of very little value? He replied: Even if it is only a small branch of an arrak serving as tooth wood (عليه وسلم -Tree is! (Muslim) 24

25 In this hadith we witness the threat of severe punishment even though the item taken is of little value. Ibn Abbas said: All those offenses are among the great sins, if committed, Allah threatens with fire, anger, condemnation and punishment. Ibn Mas'ud said: The great sins include all those offenses which Allah has forbidden in this Surah up to the 33rd Ayat of Sura an-nisaa. Tawus said: It was once said to Ibn Abbas that the number of great sins was seven. He replied that it was nearly seventy. Said Ibn Jubayr said: Once upon a time a man said to Ibn Abbas that the number of great sins is seven. Ibn Abbas replied that there were not seven but nearly seven hundred. He also said that repentant asking for forgiveness of sins destroys great sins, and insisting on small sins makes them great. Ibn Mas'ud said: The number of great sins is four: giving up hope in Allah, doubting the mercy of Allah, feeling safe from the punishment of Allah and placing a partner at Allah's side. 25th

26 From Ibn Umar the following was narrated: The number of great sins is nine: the unjustified killing of a person, the consumption of interest, the consumption of the property of an orphaned child, the slander of a virtuous woman, the perjury of inflicting trouble on the parents Escape from the battlefield, the sorcery and the committing of sins in the Holy Mosque. According to the scholars, the following offenses are the major sins: theft, gambling, consumption of alcohol, insulting the sahaba (companions of the Prophet), judges deviating from the right to bow to lust, perjury, that Doubting the mercy of Allah, insulting your own parents by insulting the parents of others, and trying to create Fitna (mischief, intrigue) in the world. Due to the differences in the individual traditions, the scholars have avoided limiting the number of the great sins. In any case, the real purpose of the Qur'anic verses and true hadiths is not to limit the number of great sins. Nonetheless, some of the sins, depending on their degree of harmfulness, are greater than others. For example, the shirk is a greater sin than those listed here, because regarding the shirk, Allah has told us that He will not forgive it under any circumstances. The next great sin is the giving up of hope in 26

27 the mercy of Allah. Because this is tantamount to denying the following verse of the Qur'an: My mercy encompasses everything. (Sura al-a'raaf, Aya 156) So whoever thinks that he will not be forgiven has restricted this unlimited mercy, and that means nothing other than denying this verse and consequently the Qur'an. Another verse of the Qur'an, which confirms this, says: He who, besides those who have gone astray, doubts the mercy of Allah. (Sura al-hijr, Aya 56) This is followed by the next great sin, the feeling of being safe from the punishment of Allah. These are the people who commit sins in a row and only indulge in the mercy of Allah. Allah says: (بحانه وتعاىل (Do you think you are safe from the unexpected punishment of Allah? Nobody, except the losers, can feel safe from the punishment of Allah. (Sura al-a'raaf, Aya 99) The next great sin is the unjustified killing of a person, because this is about the destruction of a life and existence

28 Sodomy (anal intercourse between men), which interrupts the offspring. Then there is adultery, which upsets ancestry. Then there is the alcohol that robs you of your mind, which is crucial for your conscientiousness. Then the omission of the daily compulsory prayer and the call to prayer, because both are symbols of Islam. Then perjury, which is used to declare bloodshed, property of others, and other things that haram are halal. This is followed by all other sins, the harmfulness of which is evident. All those offenses for which Allah threatens with a punishment, as well as all those that cause harm to living beings, belong to the great sins; everyone else to the little ones. (Tafsir Qurtubi Volume 5, page) 28

29 The Life of Imam Adh-Dhahabi His full name is Shamsu d-din Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Uthman Ibn Qaymaz Ibn Abdullah At-Turkmani Ash-Shafi'i Ad-Dimashqi. Born in Damascus in 673 after the Hijra. Its roots go as far as the Turkmen. He comes from the family of the Tamima sons. His family once moved from Miyafarkin (Silwan) to Damascus. Imam Adh-Dhahabi acquired his knowledge in Damascus, Egypt and Hidjaz, where he was taught by numerous scholars. He found the highest recognition in many areas of knowledge, especially in the field of Quran recitation and the hadith studies. His memory became proverbial. In this matter, he has been called the leader of the entire world. He was known as the Shaikh (head) of refutation and revision. His fame spread in all directions. All those who sought knowledge flocked to him from all directions. Imam Adh-Dhahabi held various positions in Damascus. He also gave classes in many places. As an author, he has written around 214 books, including in the areas of Quran recitation, hadith, refutation, revision, history, behavioral sciences, 'aqaid (fundamental beliefs of Islam) and law. Some of his most famous works are: 29

30 1 - Tarikhu l-islam Al-Kabir; A total of 36 volumes. Five volumes were printed in Cairo. 2 - Siyaru A lamin Nubala; More than 20 volumes. 13 volumes were printed in Beirut. 3 - Mizanu l-itidal; Was printed as four bands. 4 - Al-Ibari fi Habarin man Abar; Printed in Kuwait as a five-band. 5 - Al-Mughni Fi d-duafa; Two volumes. 6 - Al-Kaschif; Three volumes. 7 - Tazkiratu l-huffaz; Three volumes. Shaikhu l-islam Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said of Imam Adh-Dhahabi: I even drank zamzam water just to gain memory. The scholar Ibn Kathir said of him: The hadith scholars and scholars came to an end with him. His student At-Taj As-Subki said in his book Schazaratu Zahab about his teacher: There is no one like our teacher Imam Adh-Dhahabi. He was an ocean of knowledge. He was a 30

31 source of knowledge to find on any matter. In the area of ​​memory, he was the best of all the scholars of all time. He is the Shaikh of refutation and revision. Suyuti said of him in his book Zaydu l- Tazkiratu l-huffaz: I swear by Allah and say that in the field of hadith studies there are only four true scholars: Al-Muzzi, Adh-Dhahabi, Al-Iraqi, and Ibn Hajar Al- Asqalani. Imam Adh-Dhahabi lived the last seven years of his life as a blind man. He died in Damascus in 748 after the Hijra. 31

32 Foreword by the author Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds. May His blessings and peace rest on His Messenger Muhammad, his family and his companions. This book gives general and detailed information about the great sins. Kabira (the great sin) is the sin that Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه in the Holy Quran and His Messenger عليه وسلم) االله (ص in his Sunna have forbidden. Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: If you beware of the great sins, Those who have been forbidden to you, We will hide your faults and raise you to an honorable level. (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 31) With this verse of the Qur'an, Allah guarantees paradise for every Muslim as long as he is on guard against the great sins (بحانه says: (It is those who) avoid the great sins and shamefulness, and when they are angry, forgive. (Surah ash-shura, Aya 37) (It is those who) avoid the great sins and shamefulness, with Except for minor offenses - verily your Lord is of universal forgiveness (Sura an-najm, Aya 32) 32

33 The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: The compulsory prayer for each part of the day, and the period from one Friday prayer to the next, and that from one Ramadan to the next, are each an atonement for sins, except for the great ones. (Muslim ; Tirmidhi) Hence, our most important task has become to study the Kabair (great sins) and bring them to light. There are different opinions among scholars about the number of great sins. For example, some have said that there are only seven great sins For this they brought up the following hadith as proof: The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Stay away from the seven destructive sins: the addition of a partner to Allah's side; sorcery; the unjustified killing of a person; the consumption of an orphan's property; the consumption of interest; the flight from the battlefield; and the slander of a virtuous woman. (Bukhari; Muslim) Ibn Abbas measured the number of great sins with up to seventy, and that is also the truth. The fact that the Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص only mentioned seven major sins in this hadith does not mean that there are none other than these

34 Those who would have committed a great sin if they would commit an act that either requires a punishment in this world (Had) or results in a punishment from the other - such as: murder, adultery, theft - or its evildoers from the Messenger Allah's عليه وسلم) االله (ص has been cursed. Also, some of the great sins are more serious than others. (ص االله عليه وسلم) For example, the Messenger of Allah counts committing Shirk as one of the great sins, and Allah informs us that He is the one Who commits shirk, will never forgive and will forever go to hell. Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: Allah will not forgive that shirk is committed against Him. But He forgives what is less than this to whom He wills. (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 116) Allaah tells us: Whoever puts something aside for Allaah, Allaah has denied paradise. (Sura al-maida, Aya 72) In order to be able to form a judgment as to which of the great sins one is responsible for to expel Islam, have to go to the respective All Qur'anic verses and all hadiths are considered and evaluated together on the basis of other subjects. The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Shall I tell you the greatest of all sins? We said: (ص االله عليه وسلم) Yes, O Messenger of Allah! The Prophet said: To associate Allah with partner; parents 34

35 to inflict trouble; and giving a false testimony! The Prophet repeated the latter so often that we thought if he would just stop. (Bukhari; Muslim) Although the Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص counts perjury and plaguing parents among the greatest of the great sins, he did not list them among the seven destructive sins. 35

36 The 1st sin The associating of a partner at the side of Allah سبحانه (Allah Shirk is that despite the fact that you created yourself all by yourself, you equate something (تعال with something else and serve something else besides Allah, be it a stone , a tree, the sun, the moon, a prophet, a sheikh, a jinn, a star, an angel or anything else.1f2 Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: Allah will not forgive that shirk is committed against Him. But He forgives what is less than this, whom He wills. (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 48) And He (وتعاىل (بحانه says: Whoever puts something aside for Allah, Allah denies him paradise. (Sura al-Maida, Aya 72) And He (وتاىل (سبحانه says: Shirk is undoubtedly a tremendous injustice. (Sura Luqman, Aya 13) In the Qur'an there are numerous such and similar verses on this matter. It is certain that 2 equals means that you are any Right, a quality or a power which alone Allah (وتعاىل (ب حانه belongs, also speaks to another, and this in a way that only belongs to Allah. 36

37 Those who associate with Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه and die as Muschrik, among the inhabitants of Hell (بحانه وتعاىل (will belong to Allah. Those who believe in and die as believers will ultimately enter Paradise even if they are due to of their sins will be punished. The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Shall I tell you the greatest of all sins? We said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah! The Prophet عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: To associate with Allah a partner; to cause trouble to parents; and giving false testimony! The Prophet repeated the latter so often that we thought if only he would stop. (Bukhari; Muslim) And he عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Stay away from them seven destructive sins: to associate with Allah a partner ... (Bukhari, Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; An-Nasai, Ahmad) And he عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Kill those who change his Din! (Bukhari; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; An-Nasai; Ibn Maja; Ahma d) 37

38 The 2nd sin The killing of a man Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: Whoever kills a believer deliberately, his reward will be hell, in which he will remain forever. Allah is angry with him, condemns him and has prepared a severe punishment for him (Sura an-nisaa, Aya 93) Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: They are those who neither serve a god other than Allah, nor kill someone whose life Allah has declared forbidden, unless out of justification, and who also do not commit fornication (adultery). And whoever does this will find his punishment. On the day of the resurrection his punishment will be doubled and he will remain there forever as a humiliated person. Except those who repent and believe and do good works. For them Allah will be theirs convert evil deeds into good, for Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (Sura al-furqan, Aya 68-70) And He (وتعاىل (بحانه says: Anyone who kills a person unless in retaliation for murder or because of causing disaster in the country then this would be as would he have killed all humanity; and whoever sustains a person's life, then it would be as if he had preserved the life of all humanity. (Sura al-maida, Aya 32) 38

39 And He (وتعاىل (بحانه says: And if the girl, buried alive, is asked for what crime she was killed (Sura at-takwir, Aya 8-9) Also the Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص mentioned in the hadith Keep far from the seven destructive sins the unjustified killing of a life, which Allah has forbidden. Once the Messenger of Allah was عليه وسلم) االله (ص asked: O Messenger of Allah, which sin is most serious before Allah. although He is your creator. When asked: Which then? he replied: That you kill your child because you fear that it will share the food with you. Further asked: Which then? He said: That you are fornication with the wife of your neighbor. (Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; An-Nasai; Abu Dawud; Ahmad) The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: When two Muslims face each other with their swords to fight, so are both the killer and the the killed in the hell! Thereupon those present asked: We understand it for the one who killed, but why also the one who was killed? What is (ص االله عليه وسلم) then his fault? The Prophet 39

40 replied, For he too intended to kill his fellow believer. (Bukhari; Muslim) The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: The Muslim is safe from the Din as long as he does not shed blood that is forbidden for him. (Bukhari; Ahmad) And he عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Do not return to the state of kuffar after me, who cut off one another's heads. (Bukhari; Muslim) Ibn Barida narrated from his father that the Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said the following: Killing a Muslim is worse before Allah than the destruction of the earth. (An-Nasai) The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: The first thing that will be decided on the Day of Judgment is the shedding of blood. (Bukhari; Muslim; An Nasai ) ص االله عليه (of Allah's From Abdullah Ibn Amr; The Messenger said: The great sins are: The addition (وسلم of a partner to Allah's side; the unjustified killing of a person; to inflict trouble on the parents; and the giving of a false testimony. ( Bukhari; Ahmad) 40

41 (ص االله عليه وسلم) From Uqba Ibn Malik; The Messenger of Allah said: Allah denies paradise to those who wrongly kill a mu'min. The Messenger of Allah ((Ahmad; repeated these words three times. (االله عليه وسلم Adh-Dhahabi classified this hadith as saheeh 2F3 according to the terms of Muslims.) The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: No one is wronged murdered without the first son of Adam bearing part of this guilt, for he was the first to begin the killing. (Bukhari; Muslim) From Ibn Umar; The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: Who a person of kills a group with whom the Muslims had agreed a peace treaty will not even smell the scent of paradise, although it can already be smelled from a distance corresponding to a forty-year march route (Bukhari; An-Nasai; Ibn Maja; Ahmad ) (ص االله عليه وسلم) From Abu Hurayra; The Messenger of Allah said: He who kills someone who is under the protection of Allah and His Messenger would have the 3 sahih only the hadith are called, the chains of which are unbroken d clearly reach as far as the prophet and whose individual members consist of trustworthy Muslims. Sahih means real or true. 41

42 promises of Allah violated. He won't even be allowed to smell the scent of paradise; and this can certainly be seen from a distance that corresponds to a forty-year route. (Tirmidhi; hasan 4 / sahih) (ص االله عليه وسلم) From Abu Hurayra; The Messenger of Allah said: Anyone who contributes even one word to the wrongful death of a believer will appear before Allah on the day of judgment with the inscription . 4F5 from Muawiya; The Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص said: It is to be expected that Allah will forgive every sin except the sins of the one who dies as a kafir and of the one who unjustifiably kills a Muslim. 5F6 4 Hasan are the hadiths called the have a good and strong chain of narration, but not quite close to the level of saheeh. Hasan means good, and is the middle level between the true (saheeh) and the weak hadith. 5 Ibn Maja. The chain of narration of this hadith is weak. For in it there is Yazid Ibn Abi Ziyad, a person who lied and invented false hadiths.6 Abu Dawud; Ahmad; Hakim and Adh-Dhahabi classified this hadith as saheeh. 42

43 The 3rd sin The sorcery (magic) It is by no means possible to practice sorcery or magic without doing kufr at the same time. Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: The devils committed kufr because they taught people magic. (Sura al-baqara, Aya 102) The goal of the cursed Satan who teaches people magic is to make them do it, Allah (Something to join in. Allah informs us about the (بحانه وتعاىل angels Harut and Marut: They (the Jews) followed what the devils said about the rule of Sulayman. But Sulayman was not a kafir, but the devils committed kufr, because They taught the people the magic that was revealed to the two angels in Babylon, Harut and Marut. But these two did not teach anything without which they said before: We are only a test [from Allah. We teach you magic only, so that you can distinguish the true from the falsehood], so do not do kufr [using magic]! Yet they (the people of Babylon) learned from the two, thereby separating the man and his wife with none except with the authority of Allah. And they learned something that only harms them and is of no use. And yet they knew exactly who was 43

44 bought, there is no share for him in the hereafter. Verily, if only they had known how bad it is for what they sold themselves for. (Sura Baqara, Aya 102) Every day we see very many people who have gone astray and who try to learn and practice magic. They believe that doing so is just one sin. They are unaware that practicing sorcery is an act of kufr. Magic rituals or witchcraft, which are specially learned to unite the man with his wife or to increase the love between married couples, are also part of sorcery. The rambling of incomprehensible words and sentences, which may cause confusion and shirk, are also categories of magic. A magician's punishment is death. Because sorcery is the denial of Allah and the attempt to resemble Him. The Messenger of Allah mentioned the use of sorcery as one of the destructive (ص االله عليه وسلم) sins. Consequently, one should beware of sorcery and fear Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه, so as not to destroy one's own here and beyond. 44

45 From the Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله (ص it is reported: The punishment of a magician is his execution by the sword. 6F7 Bajala ibn Abada said: A year before the death of Caliph Umar, we received a letter from him in which he commanded us to kill any male or female sorcerer. (Ahmad) ص االله (Allah's Von Abu Musa al-aschari; The Messenger said: Three people are denied entry into the (عليه وسلم Paradise: the drunkard; the one who does not observe the rights of kinship; and he who believes in sorcery. (Ahmad) (ص االله عليه وسلم) From Ibn Mas'ud; The Messenger of Allah said: Ruqa7F8, Tamaim8F9 and Tiwala9F10 are Shirk. (Ahmad; Abu Dawud; Ibn Maja) 7 This narrated Tirmidhi and added that this statement does not come from the Messenger of Allah عليه وسلم) االله, (ص but from his companion Jundub ibn Abdullah. 8 Notes on the subject: Ruqa: The attempt to treat the sick with written magic formulas or with magical words and drawings heal. Mostly are not to understand the meanings of these words and drawings. 9 note d. Tr .: Tamaim: The wearing of pearls and Nazar (eye) pendants to protect yourself from the evil eye. 10 note d. Ex .: Tiwala: Magical rituals which are said to serve to increase mutual affection between the husband and his wife. 45

46 The great sins are unknown to the majority of the people. This fact is one of the truths that cannot be denied. As a result, they are unconsciously committed by ignorant people. It is precisely here that scholars have a great task. In particular, the sins who recently converted to Islam, who previously lived in the shirk for a very long time and do not know the language of Islam (Arabic), must be treated very carefully by the scholars, and these sins and the other foundations of Islam in one teach in an appropriate manner. First of all, the formula of faith (Kalimatun Tauhid) Laa ilaaha illallah must be explained to them openly and clearly in a language that they understand, based on evidence. Then they must be taught the conditions of belief and the statements and actions associated with the Shirk and Kufr deeds taught in the order of their importance. They are then informed about the meaning of the creed in Arabic. And finally they are taught the individual duties of Islam. If there is absolutely no one to teach these people the fundamentals of Islam, Shirk, Kufr and the great sins, there is a very good chance that they will fall into Shirk and commit great sins because of their ignorance. Only then will they possibly become their sins, which they 46

47 because of this ignorance, forgiven by Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه. Allah (وتعاىل (بحانه says: We do not punish a people without first having sent them a messenger. (Sura al-isra, Aya 15) The following historical fact should be related to this Please note: If the Messenger of Allah (عليه وسلم االله (ص a prohibition of Allah was revealed, this message reached some of the Sahaba who were in Abyssinia, possibly only after months.ص االله عليه (Prophets While these new prohibitions were adopted by and the Muslims in Mecca and (وسلم implemented, it is understandable that the Muslims in Abyssinia, due to their ignorance, continued to carry out these deeds. Since these prohibitions of Allah have not yet reached them they were excused on the matter, but from the time they received the news they had no reason to excuse them, and Allah knows best