What are some foolproof time management methods

Poka Joke

Japanese term, German :. "Avoid unfortunate mistakes"

Simple measures to exclude human careless mistakes with the simplest means.
Example: The pumps at a gas station are equipped with different nozzles. So
prevents a diesel vehicle from being inadvertently refueled with normal petrol. A
Poka-yoke device prevents human error from the machine work or the process
and ultimately degenerates into a product defect.

Origin and purpose of Poka Yoke: Nowadays, Poka Yoke are measures
It is impossible to imagine quality assurance without it. Poka Yoke is a well-known principle that
has been around since the 1960s. However, it has only been very popular in recent years
at the company. In Japanese, Poka Yoke means avoiding the unintentional
Wrongdoing. Poka Yoke describes a principle that technical precautions or
Includes facilities that are intended to prevent errors and detect errors immediately.
The inventor of this principle, Dr. Shigeo Shingo, was an industrial engineer in the sixties
employed at Toyota. There he developed the Poka-Yoke methods as part of the Toyota Production System (TPS). Shingo used statistical quality control (SQC) as the starting point for this.

Poka Yoke was initially known as "Baka-yoke". Baka Yoke means "foolproof" in Japanese. Since the workers who used this method found the term derogatory to them, it was changed to Poka Yoke. Poka Yoke can be translated as "error protection". The aim here is to avoid, recognize and prevent unintentional errors.

According to Shigeo Shingo, "the cause of defects lies in the mistakes of the workers."
The fact that it is not possible to completely prevent unintentional human errors has the consequence that these errors in a system are either made impossible or have to be discovered as soon as possible. Consequently, by using Poka Yoke methods, the conditions of a production step are designed in such a way that as few errors as possible can occur. In this way, an attempt is made to avoid the occurrence of damage or expenses from the outset. If it is not possible to eliminate errors in advance, Poka Yoke methods help to detect errors at an early stage and thus minimize possible consequential damage. Human errors can occur in a number of ways, such as forgetting, omitting, or mixing up assembly parts. In the literature, a distinction is made between “primary errors” and “secondary errors”. Primary errors include processing errors. This includes, for example, omitting work steps or assembling incorrect parts. Secondary errors are setting errors or incorrect work steps. Incorrect insertion, incorrect workpieces and incorrect set-up also count as secondary errors. Other failures include inadequate tool or fixture preparation.
The aim of using Poka Yoke is to detect these errors. The process is then either stopped or regulated. Another possibility is to have acoustic or optical warning signals follow, which are intended to alert those responsible and those involved to errors.

Basic elements of the Poka Yoke system:
The Poka Yoke mechanisms can be divided into two categories:

- Trigger mechanisms or initialization mechanisms
- regulatory mechanisms.

Triggering or initialization mechanisms:
Triggering or initialization mechanisms are used if an error has not occurred beforehand
can be avoided or it is not economical to do so. Here it is of great importance
Meaning to discover the error or the wrong action as soon as possible in order to avoid this
does not lead to major damage.

The trigger mechanisms can be divided into three categories:
1. Contact method
2. Fixed value method
3. Step-by-step method

The contact method (1) detects, by means of sensors, impermissible deviations via geometric
Parameters. The mechanisms are in direct contact with the workpiece and thus recognize irregularities and deviations in, for example, size, circumference, shape or weight. Depending on the type of sensor, the contact is contact or non-contact. An example of the contact method is a flag above the assembly line. The flag allows flawless parts of the right size to pass without touching them. If, however, a part is too large and thus incorrectly assembled, an alarm is triggered when the part comes into contact with the flag, thus drawing attention to the error.

The fixed value method (2)
is mainly used in processes that are composed of several successive work steps. With this method, the number of sub-steps is checked at the end of the process. If the counted number does not match the standard number, an error has occurred. This can be checked by installing measuring devices. The fixed value method is also known as the “odd part out method”. If a part is left over after assembly, an error is automatically signaled. This Poka Yoke method is often used in practice. This method can be easily illustrated again with an example: Before assembling a ballpoint pen, the parts (refill, housing parts, nib, etc.) are counted in a box. If a piece, e.g. the spring, remains in the box after assembly, an error has occurred. If the spring remains in place, this signals the error.

In the step-by-step method (3) eventually required standard sequences of movements
checked. This ensures that there is no mistakenly foreign and
thus probably wrong, work step is carried out. Laser scanners are an example of this.
Laser scanners recognize incorrect actions and warn acoustically and / or optically. Another one
An example of the step-by-step method is the coloring or marking of components around the wrong one
Avoid compounding.

Regulatory Mechanisms:
Regulatory mechanisms recognize an error in the development phase. The mechanism
signals the anomaly or, if it is a serious error, stops the process. If the process is stopped, one speaks of an intervention method. If deviations occur, the process or the production line is stopped immediately so that corrective measures can be taken and repeated errors can be avoided. For example, an order can only be sent in a computerized system if certain mandatory fields (e.g. delivery address) have been filled out. If important information is missing, the sending of the form is blocked, i.e. the process is interrupted. A window that opens draws attention to the error.
In the case of the alarm method, also known as the warning method, only the error-prone
Situation pointed out. This is mainly used when there is a tolerance range
is. One example of this is the automatic filling of corn flakes in 500g packs.
A scale checks the weight of the filling quantity. The tolerance range is between
490g and 510g. A trend can be identified, such as the weight of the packs
falls steadily and comes close to the 490 range, a light signal makes the negative trend
attentive. However, the process continues despite the light signal. The participant in the process
however, attention is drawn to the deficiency and can thus eliminate the error
before the process gets out of hand.

Implementation:
The procedure during the implementation of Poka Yoke depends on when the problem is identified. If errors are not already known, they can also be discovered during or after they arise, i.e. when the product has already been processed.

Past-oriented Poka Yoke system:
With the past-oriented Poka Yoke system, an already known mistake should be inhibited in the future. Here, the defect is recognized after its occurrence, i.e. in a subsequent process step or in the end product. All previous process steps are examined and analyzed in order to determine the location of the fault. Then the nature of the fault is explored. This is to check whether the use of Poka Yoke eliminates the error and can avoid it in the future. Finally, a suitable Poka Yoke method ensures that the process step that leads to errors is designed to be error-free. The past-oriented Poka Yoke system means that people learn from past mistakes.

Present-day Poka Yoke System:
In the present-day Poka Yoke system, the errors are still unknown. The aim of the system is to detect errors during or before they arise. Therefore an attempt is made to find and prevent possible wrong actions in processes. By observing the processes, error-prone process steps are identified. After an analysis of the possible error, it is determined whether it makes sense to use Poka Yoke. It should be added at this point that measures to prevent the potential error can sometimes be very costly. In principle, however, these measures are inexpensive and can be implemented immediately if they are used sensibly. Processes are continuously improved through the present-day oriented Poka Yoke system.

Future-oriented Poka Yoke System:
The future-oriented Poka Yoke system is based on empirical values ​​and analyzes it
Process steps. The aim here is again to avoid mistakes.

Poka Yoke in service:
Poka Yoke is also becoming more and more popular in the service area. A distinction is made between Server Poka Yoke, i.e. error avoidance on the part of production management Poka Yoke on the part of the service provider, and Customer Poka Yoke (error avoidance on the part of the customer).

Server Poka Yoke:
The server Poka Yokes can be divided into three categories:
1) Task Poka Yoke
2) Treatment Poka Yoke
3) Tangible Poka Yoke

A Poka Yoke (1) task prevents errors that occur while the service is being performed. The
Work done in the wrong order or without being asked, as well as slow operation and incorrect work done are such errors. An example is entering the price incorrectly at the fast food restaurant checkout. Labeling the buttons with the item name instead of numbers eliminates this error almost completely. The cashier no longer needs to think about the price of the drink when buying a cola and can therefore not be wrong. The probability of typing errors has also decreased, since only one key has to be pressed, the “Cola” key. In contrast to errors in production, errors can occur in the service area which, although they have no visible effect on the product, significantly reduce the value of the service. A lack of courtesy and unprofessional behavior increases customer dissatisfaction and the quality of the service decreases.

So-called Treatment Poka Yokes (2) prevent incorrect behavior on the part of the service provider. If, for example, a customer enters the shop and cannot find a contact person because the seller is currently in the warehouse, the customer's dissatisfaction with the lack of service increases. A bell above the entrance door, which signals the opening of the door, alerts the seller to the customer acoustically. Another example is the bank customer who feels rude because the bank clerk at the counter does not look him in the eye. However, if the employee has to note the color of the customer's eyes when filling out the transfer form, the employee is forced to look directly at the customer. This small PokaYoke agent ensures eye contact and makes the service more personal.

The Tangible Poka Yokes (3) avoid errors in a physical element of service
are located. For example, it can happen in a wellness bathroom that an unwashed one
Towel is issued. The mistake is avoided by having washed towels with one
Paper tape to be marked. Another example is sending a letter to the wrong customer. A window in the envelope prevents a letter from being put into an incorrectly addressed envelope.

Customer Poka Yoke:
However, services can also become faulty due to the influence of the customer.
Customer Poka Yoke prevents customer mistakes. Customer Poka Yoke can be divided into:

1) Preparation Poka Yoke
2) Encounter Poka Yoke
3) Resolution Poka Yoke

Errors can occur in advance, i.e. before the service takes place.
Forgetting the right documents, misunderstanding the role, or using the wrong service are early mistakes.

Preparation Poka Yokes (1) prevent these customer mistakes. A “preparation
Mistake ", i.e. preparation errors, can occur, for example, when enrolling at the university.
A foreign student wants to enroll, but cannot show the required documents such as visa, passport photo, ID card and health insurance. Checklists with all required documents prevent this error. With the help of the university's website, the student can compile a list of the required documents.

"Encounter errors" are errors made by the customer while the customer is receiving the service.
Inattention, misunderstandings, and memory lapses are among these mistakes. For example, a customer forgets their bank card in the ATM. An Encounter Poka Yoke (2), in this case the beeping of the machine, draws the customer's attention to his mistake. Often the customer does not make the service provider aware of his poor performance, does not give any feedback or has wrong expectations of the service. Many customers who are dissatisfied with a service leave the service provider with suppressed anger.

An effective Resolution Poka Yoke (3) measure, here a survey or a customer meeting,
can help. The customer can express his dissatisfaction through a feedback conversation or questionnaires. The benefits of this method are mutual. The customer feels understood because he realizes that his opinion is important to the service provider. The service provider can improve his service with the help of constructive criticism from the customer. Incentives such as competitions or prizes encourage the customer to give feedback.

How do you recognize a good Poka Yoke application?
There are numerous criteria by which one can determine the quality of a good Poka Yoke mechanism
can derive: In addition to low investment costs, the implementation of a Poka Yoke mechanism should be quick and easy. Poka Yoke was supposed to increase production throughput
and has a decisive impact on the quality of the end product. Poka Yoke
Mechanisms are usually aimed at one or a few possible errors.
Wrong actions should be impossible or at least very difficult with Poka Yoke applications
be made. Since a defective product must not reach the next assembly station, a good poka yoke mechanism prevents this. As part of the process, the poka yoke mechanism shouldn't be an additional step. This should support the worker in producing quality. Thus, the mechanism does not serve to control the worker, but to control the quality on site and, in conjunction with other measures, can replace a final inspection. The best Poka Yoke is still a robust design, process knowledge and a high level of awareness of the work and the importance of this in the organization, the value chain and for the end product. The automotive industry has recognized this. Initiatives such as supplier development programs testify to this awareness.

Sources: www.ebz-beratungszentrum.de