Who is the father of Dronacharya

In the epic Mahabharata was Droṇa (Sanskrit: द्रोण, Droṇa ) or Droṇāchārya or Guru Droṇa or Rajaguru Devadroṇa royal teacher of the Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a friend of Guru Sukracharya, the Guru of Asuras, including Mahabali. He was the son of Rishi Bharadwaja and a descendant of the sage Angirasa. He was a master of the advanced military arts, including the divine weapons or astras. From the 11th to the 15th day he was also the second in chief of the Kaurava Army. He failed 4 times in capturing Yudhisthira (11th, 12th day, 14th day when Arjuna was busy fighting killing Jaydratha and 14th night. He was beheaded by Dhrishtadyumna when he was meditating on his soul solve the battlefield. [1]

Birth and early life

On one side of the river, Bharadwaja saw an apsara called Ghritachi. He was full of desires and his seed fell into a pot or basket. A little boy named Drona developed in it when he was born in a pot. [2] [1]

Drona spent his childhood in his father's ashrama. He was instructed in the knowledge of the Agneya weapon by Agnivesa, a student of his father's. There he met Drupada, the prince of Panchala. They became best friends and Drupada promised Drona that he would give him everything. They studied together with Bharadwaj. Later, Drupada returned to his palace and Drona went to Parshuram, an incarnation of Vishnu, and learned weapon skills. He also received many celestial weapons. [3]

Time passed and Drupada became the king of Panchala. Drona married Kripi, Kripa's sister, and had a son named Ashwatthama. Drona was not interested in material wealth and became poor. [4]

Drona's insult

Once, Drona's son Ashwatthama was playing with his friends. His friends were drinking milk and he wanted to drink it too. But his friends mixed flour with water and gave it to him. This enraged Drona and he remembered Drupada's promise. He went to Drupada's palace and asked him to give cows. But Drupada, filled with pride and ego, refused. He also insulted Drona by asking how a beggar could be his friend. This outraged Drona and he wanted revenge on Drupada. [5]

Teaching of the Kuru princes

Drona orders Arjuna to shoot the arrow.

Drona burned with anger and wanted revenge on Drupad. During his time in Hastinapur, he came across the Kuru Princes while playing and was able to use his skills to help the Princes solve some of their problems. He used grass to take out the ball they were playing from. Amazed, the princes went to see their great-uncle Bhishma. Bhishma immediately realized that this was Drona and asked him to become the Guru of the Kuru princes in order to train them in advanced military arts. [6]

Of all the Kaurava and Pandava brothers trained under Drona, Arjuna turned out to be the most dedicated, hardworking, and of course, most talented of them all, even surpassing Drona's own son Ashwatthama. Arjuna diligently served his teacher, who was very impressed by his devoted student. Arjuna exceeded Drona's expectations in numerous challenges. [7] As a reward, Drona gave Arjuna mantras to invoke the overpowering divine weapon of Brahma known as Brahmashirshastra, however Arjuna said not to use this invincible weapon against an ordinary warrior.

When Arjun, inspired by his brother Bhima's nightly meal, mastered archery in absolute darkness, Drona was moved. Drona was very impressed by Arjuna's concentration, determination and drive and promised him that he would become the greatest archer in the world. Drona gave Arjuna special knowledge of the divine astras. [ Quote needed ]

Drona was particularly interested in Arjuna and Ashwatthama. Drona loved his son Ashwatthama very much and as a guru he loved Arjuna more than anyone.

Ekalavya

Eklavya sacrifices his thumb

A strong criticism of Dronacharya is directed against his unkind treatment of Ekalavya. However, it can be argued that Dronacharya was merely doing his duty.

Ekalavya, the son of a Nishadha chief, approached Dronacharya and asked him for instructions. Since his father was a general under Jarasandh, the ruler of Magadha (a hostile state), Dronacharya refused to train him alongside Kauravas and Panadavas. Undeterred, Ekalavya began to study and practice himself after designing a tonidol from Dronacharya to watch over his training. By his determination alone, Ekalavya became an archer of exceptional skill.

One day, Ekalavya's focus on training was disrupted by the barking of a Kuru prince dog. Ekalavya fired arrows that filled the dog's mouth without spilling blood or harming the dog. The Kuru princes were amazed at the trick and were looking for the archer when they saw Ekalavya introducing himself as a disciple of Drona. This angry Arjuna who accused Ekalavya of treason and asked Drona to punish him for illegitimate studies. Drona was caught up in a tangle: on the one hand, he greatly admired Ekalavya's skill and commitment; On the other hand, Ekalavya had actually trained as his disciple without his consent, although he was guided only by his idol. To clarify the matter, Drona accepted Ekalavya as his disciple, but requested the thumb on his dominant hand as Gurudakshina or the teacher's payment to limit his ability and further growth in archery, thus calming Arjuna. Ekalavya, an exemplary student, immediately cut off his thumb and presented it at Drona's feet. Moved by Ekalavya's sacrifice, Drona blessed him to gain mastery even without his thumb. [8]

Drona's revenge

After Drona completed the formal training of the Kuru princes, he asked them to enter Panchala and bring him Drupada as their Gurudakshina. Arjuna manages to defeat Drupada and bring the captured king to Drona. Drona reminds Drupada of their days of friendship and false promise before taking away half of the Panchala Kingdom. [9] Drona would make Ashwatthama king of the annexed half of the Panchala kingdom. This action would cause Drupada to perform a sacrificial yagna to father a son who would kill Drona. Sages Upayaja and Yaja helped him father such a son, Dhrishtadyumna. The sacrificial fire also produced a woman, Draupadi [10]

Weapons of Drona

Drona held the invincible sword of Lord Brahma. Bhishma once told the story of this sword to Pandava Prince Nakula. This sword was the primordial weapon of the gods to destroy evil. The name of the sword was Asi, the personification and primary energy behind all weapons ever created. According to Bhishma, the constellation under which the sword was born is called Krittika, Agni is his deity, Rohini is his Gotra, Rudra is his high teacher and whoever holds this weapon will surely win the victory. [11]

Role in the Kurukshetra war

Dronacharya had been the teacher on both sides of most of the kings involved in the Kurukshetra war. Dronacharya strongly condemned Duryodhana, who banished the Pandavas, as well as the general abuse of the Kauravas against the Pandavas. As a servant of Hastinapura, however, Dronacharya was obliged to fight for the Kauravas and thus against his favorite pandavas. After the fall of Bhishma on the tenth day, he became Commander-in-Chief of the Kuru Army on the eleventh day of the war. [12]

Duryodhana manages to convince Drona to end the war by conquering Yudhishthira. Despite killing hundreds and thousands of Pandava soldiers, Drona was unable to capture Yudhishthira on days eleven and twelve of the war as Arjuna was always there to fend off his advances. [13] [14]

Abhimanyu's murder

The nephew of the Pandavas, Abhimanyu, fights against the Kauravas and their allies

On the 13th day of the battle, Dronacharya formed the Chakravyuha- Strategy to conquer Yudhishtira knowing that only Arjuna and Krishna would know how to penetrate into them. The Trigartas diverted Arjuna and Krishna to another part of the battlefield and allowed the main Kuru army to storm through the Pandava ranks.

Unknown to many, Arjuna's little son Abhimanyu had the knowledge to enter the formation but did not know the way out. At the request of Yudhishthira, Abhimanyu agreed to lead the way for the Pandava army and was able to penetrate the formation. However, he was trapped when Jayadratha, the king of Sindhu, held the Pandava warriors who followed him at bay. Abhimanyu did not know how to get out of the Chakravyuha, but began a widespread attack on the Kuru army, in which tens of thousands of warriors were single-handedly killed. Drona is impressed with Abhimanyu and praises him endlessly and deserves the wrath of Duryodhana. With his army facing decimation and spurred by Duryodhana's criticism, Drona asked the Kaurava warriors to simultaneously attack Abhimanyu, knock down his horses and charioteer, and disable his chariot from various angles. Without support, Abhimanyu began fighting from the ground. Abhimanyu was exhausted after his long and astonishing achievements and was eventually killed.

Afterwards, several who fought against Abhimanyu were criticized for their murder, such as Bhurishrava, Drona or Karna.

Fourteenth day

The devious murder of his son enraged Arjuna, who swore to kill Jayadratha or burn himself to death the next day. Drona constructed 3 combined Vyuhas to protect Jayadratha, first the Shakata Vyuha, then Padma Vyuha and lastly the Srigantaka Vyuha and behind Jayadratha and stood at the head of the box formation or Shakata Vyuha

At the beginning of the day he and Arjuna duel, and Arjuna cannot bypass his teacher. Arjuna Drona deals with Krishna's nudging. When Duryodhana rages in Drona, Drona responds that he intends to conquer Yudhishthira while Arjuna is away and would only hasten her victory. [15] In a remarkable battle, Drona tries to capture Yudhishthira but is stopped by Dhristadyumna. Drona seriously wounds his friend's son, disarms him and forces him to retreat. When he tries to chase Dhristadyumna, he is checked by Satyaki, who insults his teacher's teacher and issues a challenge. Their struggle is described as fierce and although they can hold Drona back for several hours, Satyaki eventually gets tired and must be rescued by the Upapandavas. [fifteen]

Later that day, Yudhishthira sends Satyaki to help Arjuna. When Satyaki comes across Drona, he bypasses him and says he must follow in his teacher's footsteps. When Yudhishthira later sends Bhima, Drona tells what happened to Arjuna and Satyaki, thus making sure that he does not allow Bhima to bypass him as well. Bhima furiously rebukes him and smashes Drona's chariot with his mace. Drona picks up another chariot just so that Bhima can smash it too. In total, Bhima smashed eight of Drona's chariots and was able to bypass his guru.

death

Bhima kills an elephant named Asvatthama, by artist Sadiq from Razmnama

On the 14th night (when the Kuravas were unwilling to stop) of the Mahabharata War, Drona is incited by Duryodhana's statements of being a traitor because he was unable to protect Jaidrath. When he felt that his end was near, he used the Brahmastra against the common Pandava soldiers. At that moment, all the sapta Ṛṣis appeared in the sky and asked Drona to withdraw this ultimate weapon, which was used for common soldiers. Dronacharya obeyed and withdrew the weapon. The Rishis go on and abuse Drona for breaking the rules of war and criticize him for using divine weapons so indiscriminately. Drona reiterates that he is sworn to do everything possible to protect Hastinapur and that he would also do so for all that Dhritarashtra has given him. [fifteen]

On this day, Drona kills many Pandava soldiers, including Virat in the arrow game and Drupada in the sword fight. Drona laments the deterioration in their friendship and pays his respects to Drupada's corpse.

Krishna knew that it would be impossible to defeat an armed drona and proposed a plan to the Pandavas to disarm their teacher. His idea was that Bhima would first kill an elephant named Ashwatthama and then claim to Dronacharya that he killed Dronacharya's son of the same name. After killing the elephant, Bhima loudly announced that he had killed "Ashwatthama". Drona did not believe him and approached Yudhishthira, knowing that Yudhishthira was firmly attached to Dharma and honesty. When Dronacharya asked the truth, Yudhishthira replied with the cryptic "Ashwatthama is dead. But the elephant and not your son." Krishna also knew that it would be impossible for Yudhishthira to lie directly. Under his direction, the other warriors blew trumpets and shells and made a turbulent noise so that Dronacharya only heard that "Ashwatthama was dead" and could not hear the last part of Yudhishthira's answer. In other versions of the story, Drona simply does not process the last part of Yudhishthira's testimony in grief. [ Quote needed ] [16]

Dronacharya's mind leaves his body
Dhrishtadyumna cuts Drona's head (top left corner)

Then Drona got down from his car, put her arms down, and sat in meditation. Pandavas wanted to take this opportunity to arrest him, but angry at the death of his father and several Panchala warriors, Dhrishtadyumna took this opportunity and beheaded him in a gross violation of the rules of war. Krishna justified the act with Drona's role in the murder of Abhimanyu. [17]

Analysis and modern evaluation

Drona is considered to be the first test tube baby (in theory). [1] Drona's request for Guru Dakshina of Ekalavya in the form of his right thumb is also examined. In some folklore, Saraswati curses Dronacharya with an unarmed and degrading death for Drona's actions. Saraswati said that knowledge belonged to everyone and that it was the duty of an Acharya to spread this knowledge everywhere. [15] For all reasons, Drona cheated on Ekalavya and Karna in order to achieve something for herself - to protect his promise to Arjuna to make Arjuna the greatest archer in the world, as well as his oath to Hastinapur.

Drona was Bhishma both in terms of the fighting powers and, compelled by the refuge they had given him, in his unwavering commitment to fight for Hastinapur, regardless of who the ruler was and whether the cause was just or not something parallel . Like Bhishma, Drona has been criticized for his pride and conceit in standing up for Adharma despite knowing and recognizing the righteousness of the Pandava cause. Krishna criticized this argument as mere pride - Drona wanted to impose his obligation to the Dharma on Hastinapur so that no one would question his honor. [18]

Dronacharya was criticized for many of his actions during the war: [18]

  • First as a brahmin and second as the teacher of the princes, he should have moved away from the battlefield.
  • Dronacharya tried to use Brahmastra, heavenly powerful weapons against the common foot soldiers of the Pandavas. But when Lord Krishna stopped him, Drona argued that his first obligation was to defeat his enemy and defend his soldiers by whatever means he possessed them.
  • His responsibility for the devious and brutal murder of Abhimanyu as he was the chief of the Kaurava Army at the time.
  • Symbol of casteism: When Drona asked Ekalavya to cut off his right thumb as Guru Dakshina (fee for teachers). Ekalavya cut off his thumb and presented it to Dronacharya as Gurudakshina. In reality he was not a teacher at Eklavya, yet he asked an archer for his right thumb.

Droncharya's overall actions during the war are portrayed differently. When he became commander in chief, the rules of war were turned away. Divine weapons were used against common soldiers, the war lasted all night, the warriors no longer engaged individually, etc. In particular, he was ready to end the war by capturing Yudhishthira while Karna was not what he was thought it dishonorable. He is directly compared to Karna who, even though she didn't even know he was a Kshatriya, still intuitively understood the Kshatriya code / way of life. In other versions, Drona's differences in strategy are shown as differences in philosophy - Drona believed that his goal as Commander in Chief of the Kaurava Army was to ensure the protection of his soldiers by whatever means necessary.By choosing to adhere to the rules of war and the concept of honorable deeds in the lives of his soldiers, he would be doing them a disservice. [18]

He remains a revered figure in Hindu history and a pillar of the Indian tradition of respecting his teacher not only as equals with parents, but also with God. The Indian government annually awards the Dronacharya Prize for excellence in physical education to the best physical education teachers and coaches in India. [19]

It is believed that the city of Gurgaon (literally "Guru's Village") was founded by Dronacharya as "Guru Gram" on the land given to him by Dhritarashtra, the king of Hastinapura, in recognition of his martial arts teachings to the princes and the ' Dronacharya tank 'still exists in the city of Gurgaon, along with a village called Gurgaon. [20] The Indian government (Haryana) decided on April 12, 2016 to reintroduce the name Gurgaon and change it to Gurugram.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Chakravarti 2007.
  2. ^ Vishnu Purana-Drauni or Asvathama next Saptarishi. Accessed 02.15.2015
  3. ^ Ganguly The Mahabharata Retrieved February 15, 2015
  4. ^ "The Story of Drona (Dronacharya) | Mahabharata Stories, Summary, and Characters from Mahabharata". www.mahabharataonline.com . Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  5. ^"The Story of Drona - Teachers of Kauravas and Pandavas". Archived from the original on July 13, 2011.
  6. ^Pattanaik, Devdutt (January 1, 2010). "19". Jaya: An illustrated retelling of the Mahabharata . Penguin Books India. p. 59. ISBN.
  7. ^ Mahabharata, Book I: Pardi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXXXV
  8. ^Srivastava, Diwaker Ikshit (December 11, 2017). Deciphering the metaphor Mahabharata . One Point Six Technology Pvt Ltd. ISBN.
  9. ^ Mahabharata, Book I: Pardi Parva, Sambhava Parva, Section CXL
  10. ^ Mahabharata, Book I: Pardi Parva, Chaitraratha Parva, section CLXIX
  11. ^"Sword of Drona". Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  12. ^The Secret of the Mahabharata: Vol. V: The Explanation of the Epic Part II . India Research Press.
  13. ^"18 Days of the Mahabharata War - Summary of the War". VedicFeed . June 27, 2018. Accessed September 1, 2020.
  14. ^ The Mahabharata, Book 7: Drona Parva: Abhimanyu-vadha Parva: Section XLVI
  15. ^