Could MOOCs be used to raise children?

# 07 DIGITAL LEARNING. MOOCs in a nutshell.


1 # 07 DIGITAL LEARNING MOOCs in a nutshell.


3 # 07 MOOCs MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES INTRO 2 # Digital learning BACKGROUND 4 # Information and orientation OVERVIEW 10 # Examples of online learning applications 12 # Two forms of MOOCs must be fundamentally differentiated BACKGROUND 14 # MOOCs Hype or savior? OPINION 18 # Why we also need MOOCs a plea BACKGROUND 21 # How online learning is breaking up structures and renewing processes PERSPECTIVE 22 # Financing and business models for online learning 24 # Side effects of the commercialization of education 26 # Situation in Germany 28 # Challenges and requirements INTERVIEW 31 # There is a lot of marketing talk in play here PERSPECTIVE 34 # Opportunities and risks CONCLUSION & OUTLOOK 38 # The evolution of the world of education 39 The author of this issue 41 Imprint

4 INTRO Information is always and everywhere available on the Internet. This is another reason why we read and buy online, organize our work there and talk to friends digitally. The internet seems so practical that it is used to handle more and more things in life. In addition, the Internet offers new opportunities to exchange ideas with one another. DIGITAL LEARNING DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 2

5 The latest trend: going to university online. The lectures are no longer tied to time and place, anyone with access to the Internet can attend courses whenever and wherever they want and sometimes even graduate online. As with many Internet phenomena, so-called online learning is often referred to as a revolution or avalanche that schools and universities have to be prepared for. Many more people now have access to the often free teaching units at universities. Could the UN Millennium Goal of Basic Education for All be achieved? Can We All Get Harvard Degrees Now? A differentiated look at the phenomenon shows that digital learning on the one hand actually has great potential. It can break up structures, contribute to the democratization of education and make it possible to combine education, work and family. On the other hand, however, new access barriers can arise if, for example, high fees are charged for online universities and this leads to the commercialization of educational offers. It also excludes people who do not have internet access. The question that arises here is how these aspects can be reconciled with an understanding of education as a common good. Different perspectives are taken into account in this issue of Digitalkompakt LfM: What does the digitization of education mean for learners? What for the teachers? What challenges do universities have to face? How will online learning change our society? What about the financing and business models and the consequences that result for the user? How important are privacy and data protection? With this issue, the LfM would like to inform about the new trend in digital learning and highlight the associated opportunities and risks. The brochure helps with orientation on the subject of online learning and uses examples to show which formats already exist in Germany and other countries, how they work and how they are used. One focus is on the MOOCs that are so much cited in the media. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 3

6 BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND ORIENTATION One has been able to learn about the Internet since its inception. The information content of the network is growing immeasurably (big data), and anyone who links different information can generate new knowledge from it. NEW NEW NEW NEW Online learning ONLINE LEARNING DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 4

7 What is new about online learning is that the knowledge comes in structured formats and is available almost always and everywhere. These formats are mostly similar to those of universities, which is why one can also speak of old wine in new (digital) bottles in the simplest form of online learning, the filmed lecture hall lectures. But the type of reception is changing due to the Internet: The students are flexible in terms of time and location and can listen to the lecture at home on the sofa or on vacation on the beach. The new wine, or rather, the new format that has the potential of the educational revolution, is called MOOC: Massive Open Online Course. These courses do not only consist of videos of the lectures, but rather have the character of a workshop: The students can use tests and quizzes to solve tasks, the results of which they evaluate each other. Because of the large number of participants, the lecturer cannot assess all study achievements on his own. The participants also discuss content and questions in forums. There are also external providers of specialized websites on which various universities offer their MOOCs to process MOOCs (more on page 10). Salman Khan is considered to be one of the triggers of the MOOC wave. The American educator with Indian roots began giving his cousin tutorials on the Yahoo! Doodle Notebook in 2004. to send. When other relatives and friends also asked for the digital tutoring, Khan published educational films (tutorials) on YouTube. Three years later, the videos were so popular that he quit his job as a hedge fund analyst and founded the Khan Acadamy. Today children and adults can not only learn addition or understand cell division with the help of over 4000 videos, but can also apply their knowledge in interactive tests and quizzes. The brevity and nature of the learning videos have shaped the appearance of today's MOOCs, which always contain a video part. The Khan Acadamy has developed into a professional place of learning on the Internet over the course of time, also thanks to a financial commitment from Google. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 5

8 BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND ORIENTATION OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES (OER) OER are free learning and teaching materials, but also corresponding free software that can not only be used free of charge, but also changed and improved. It is often committed practitioners who produce such materials and distribute them over the Internet. (e.g. on Connexions: The term was introduced in 2002 at a UNESCO conference on education in developing countries, and it is in these countries that OER is expected to have its greatest impact. The logo is intended to create a global brand or means of identification with the idea of ​​freely accessible educational resources. As before, UNESCO advocates international OER awareness (e.g. via the International Institute of Educational Planning). The OER movement tries to encourage institutions and governments of all countries to invest in appropriate initiatives. There is still little interest in Germany: Among the approx. 200 participating institutions of the Open Courseware Consortium there is none from Germany. But in 2011 the United States made available two billion US dollars for the topic over four years. The contents of the Khan Acadamy are a form of Open Educational Resources (OER), i.e. freely accessible educational materials. The OER term was created in 2002 at a UNESCO conference and developed into an international initiative to promote freely accessible online learning content. (see box) MOOCs and other online educational formats of today emerged from the awareness of this OER movement. This in turn developed in times when the Internet was still young, barely regulated and not dominated by large companies (see digital compact LfM # 05 on AGFA). It was then that the culture of the open movement emerged: Open Knowledge, Open Source, Open Data. It is true that content on the Internet and the Internet itself are increasingly being commercialized. But sharing, transparency and participation are still some of his core values. In this sense, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was one of the first official educational institutions to open and MIT made all lecture materials freely available online as part of its OpenCourseWare project. The opening itself was nothing new. As early as the 1920s, when radios became established, many US universities were broadcasting their content via their own stations. TV lessons were added in the 1940s and radios have been used since the 1950s to give people in remote areas access to education. Since the 1980s these connections to video conferencing have been expanded, James J. O Donnell of the University of Pennsylvania reached 500 participants worldwide with a seminar, and hundreds of colleges offered distance learning programs with degrees. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 6


10 BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND ORIENTATION MOODLE Moodle is an open source software that can be used to manage teaching content and organize courses. Not only universities, but also schools and companies from all over the world use Moodle: Over 70 million users and 7 million courses have been registered so far. The virtual course rooms also contain functions such as messenger, wiki or blogs. In addition, hundreds of additional modules can be installed, which various programmers have contributed on a voluntary basis. In this way, the software can be easily adapted to individual needs and circumstances. Because this type of learning is technology-based, its development always runs along media technological innovations. New media always brought new types of learning with them. There are three milestones in distance learning: First came the print media (from around 1850), then telecommunications media (from around 1960) and, since 1990, computers and the Internet have increasingly shaped our everyday learning. With the use of telecommunications media, the course became more bidirectional and the students could be better looked after. In this second phase, the first German distance learning university was founded in Hagen. While the word massive in the term MOOC today alludes to the large number of participants, technology prevented such scalability in the days of video and teleconferencing: The technology was so complex and expensive that it was not possible to attend seminars from home , but had to be at certain locations (e.g. the regional office of the distance university) at fixed times. THE TECHNOLOGY TURBO The real breakthrough came with the Internet, because it is even easier to communicate and exchange information. Because learning is a social process that does not work without communication and feedback between learners and teachers and without contact within the group of learners. Online learning has been growing rapidly since the mid-1990s; learning that is flexible in terms of space and time is leaving its niche and reaching the mainstream for the first time, because computers and the Internet are becoming suitable for the masses and more and more people are using this technology. A numerical example from the University of Maryland University College: The first online course with 110 students was held there in 1997, and there were already online students there in 2009. The first MOOC, which deserves the word massive, was organized by Sebastian Thrun in 2011 on Artificial Intelligence. The Stanford professor of robotics previously reached 150 to 200 students per lecture. Then he offered it as a video on a specialist mailing list. The mail went viral, and eventually around people watched the lecture videos. During the recording, Thrun initially spoke in front of 200 students in the lecture hall, but after a few weeks there were only 30, as most of them preferred to watch the video version in peace. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 8

11 A total of 14 percent of the students completed the course. Of the top 400 graduates on the course, none were enrolled at Stanford University, and probably no one could afford the US dollars to study there. In this way, MOOCs also contribute to the democratization of education. Incidentally, after his success, Thrun waived his Stanford salary and founded the MOOC platform Udacity (see p. 11). The demand seems to be right: three million students in the USA now attend at least one online course for which they also receive credit points at universities. LOCATION BASED LEARNING describes forms and scenarios of learning, services and software that relate learning content to the current location of the learner. These include, for example, GPS learning paths on which you can pace places like on a paper chase and solve tasks there (example: edunauten. Net). The playful element (gamification) contained therein has a motivating effect. Appropriate learning scenarios can also be developed with augmented reality (real objects are linked with digital content). FAREWELL TO STATIC LEARNING Because computers are becoming increasingly mobile, the flexibility of learning in terms of location and time is also increasing: Even in the subway, you can watch learning videos on your mobile phone or listen to podcasts from lectures while jogging. (There are also application examples for location-based online learning, see box.) The Udemy platform also offers its courses via a mobile phone app, for example. This flexibility also facilitates lifelong learning, which is becoming more and more indispensable in the course of the faster development of society: today's training and studies are not sufficient to meet the knowledge requirements in 20 years' time. Computer- and online-based learning will continue to grow because today's students are all so-called digital natives: They grew up with the Internet, for them tablets, smartphones and software use are a matter of course every day. The following pages show how schools, universities and companies meet this demand. Which online learning formats are offered and which opportunities and risks result from this? DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 9

12 BACKGROUND OVERVIEW VEE EXAMPLES OF ONLINE LEARNING APPLICATIONS GERMANY iversity founded in 2011, the German commercial MOOC platform was funded by the Exist start-up grant from the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and the BFB early phase fund Brandenburg. In autumn 2013, ten courses from different universities will start, for example one at the FH Potsdam on the subject of digital storytelling. These courses were acquired through a grant of ten euros, with which the universities can finance their MOOCs. Iversity has not yet commented on the number of users. SERLO Behind the website, which went online in 2011, stands the non-profit association Serlo, which is made up of schoolchildren, students, teachers and programmers. Almost visitors (as of June 2013) use the online help for everyday school life, so far only for the subject of mathematics. The tasks are structured according to topic and curriculum, so that Serlo is well suited for exam preparation. SOFATUTOR The Berlin company offers tutoring for pupils and students with the help of almost learning videos in 21 subjects. You can check your knowledge in just a few different tests and, if necessary, receive immediate help from teachers in specialist chats. Depending on the content and duration of the packages, monthly access costs between 15 and 35 euros. (similar to: ALLVERSITY Allversity is a non-profit GmbH based in Wittenberg, which was founded in 2011 so that people can learn all kinds of things online. The courses are everyday-oriented and so far offer no university teaching. How to Build a Computer, Newborn Care for Professionals or Crash Course World History show the range. The courses on Allversity are all freely divisible and reusable and should reach as many people as possible. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 10

13 INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PEOPLE According to its own information, the World s first tuitionfree online university, the University of the People was founded in 2009 by Shai Reshef. The non-profit organization works with New York University and the Hewlett Packard Foundation, for example. The topics focus on business administration and computer science. Over students from 136 countries have so far been admitted. The one-time registration fee is $ 50 and the exam fee per course is $ 100. The Hewlett Packard Foundation awards 100 scholarships annually for the financially disadvantaged. Individual students can be supported via a micro-scholarship portal. COURSERA Stanford professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller founded Coursera in April 2012. Over three million people use the platform (as of April 2013), on which MOOCs from 70 educational institutions and universities (e.g. also the LMU Munich) can be found. The company had raised 16 million US dollars in venture capital by April 2012. Streams of income are to be generated through premium content. The students undertake to correct the work of their fellow students. So far, money has been generated through graduation fees, and data from particularly good graduates has been sold to companies (with the consent of the respective graduates). EDX The founding institutions MIT and Harvard University spent millions of US dollars on the non-profit platform for MOOCs in the fall. The edx code is open source. Certificates are also free at edx, but no official credit points can be collected for regular studies. 27 educational institutions cooperate with edx (as of May 2013), including the Technical University of UDACITY Stanford professor Sebastian Thrun and colleagues founded this MOOC platform in February 2012 and have so far raised more than 15 million US dollars in venture capital. Simple certificates are free, but students from over 200 different countries have to pay $ 89 for a 75-minute guided exam. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 11

14 OVERVIEW TWO FORMS OF MOOCS ARE BASICALLY DIFFERENTIAL c MOOCs (c = connectivism) Out of the OER movement, the first online courses developed around 2008, which are now called cmoocs because they are based on the Siemens principle of connectivism. Contents are not produced in advance by an organizer, but jointly by the participants and are changed, expanded, linked and disseminated during the course of the course. Only a few milestones are given, the spaces between which are filled with this content. cmoocs require a certain level of digital competence. The teacher acts more as a mentor and encourages the participants to expand the MOOC network and to let the course run decentrally on the net (via blog posts, videos, tweets or podcasts). The organizers can recognize the achievements of the participants with credit points for the university or certifications. But other motivational mechanisms also work: a student whose self-produced explanatory video for his course is viewed over and over again on YouTube will likely experience a feeling of appreciation as a result. connectivism DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 12

15 x MOOCs (x = extension) In 2011 the term xmoocs came up with the courses at Stanford University. The x stands for extension. xmoocs are more classically structured and less open, that is, they resemble university courses in terms of their sequence. xmoocs often include videos of lectures, quizzes and tests, and homework. Study achievements can be recognized and credit points can be collected. Networking among the participants is not an essential part of the xmoocs. Because the number of participants is usually too large for the teachers to be able to assess the thousands of study achievements alone, the so-called peer-to-peer procedure is used, in which the participants evaluate each other and give feedback. The courses on Coursera and Udacity are therefore xmoocs, and it is these courses that the media are increasingly reporting on. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 13

16 BACKGROUND MOOCS HYPE OR HEALING? The acronym for Massive Open Online Course was coined in 2008 during an online course on Connectivism and Connective Knowledge by George Siemens and Stephen Downes. A few years earlier, Siemens published its connectivism learning theory, on the principles of which MOOCs are based. The human being is a networked individual who is in contact with other learners, teachers and sources of learning materials via increasingly digital nodes. Connectivism wants to do justice to today's social structures, our communication methods and technologies. A definition or generally recognized standards for MOOCs do not yet exist. It is unclear z. B. What is meant by Massive: 1000 participants? Attendees? Or like some Stanford University courses? And what does Open refer to? How about free participation? That everyone can register? In particular, the type of course is not specified. Are there any credit points? Are learning groups formed? Are peer-to-peer assessments and interactive multimedia formats being used? DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 14

17 In keeping with the rapid development of Internet applications, hardly anyone bothered with such questions - facts were simply created. Various start-ups (Coursera etc. see list on p. 10) programmed infrastructures and offered themselves as a platform for MOOCs. Some media said the new format had promising potential, the New York Times declared 2012 the year of the MOOCs and there was soon talk of an educational revolution. Universities, especially in the US, were rushing to produce online courses. Like many other new Internet developments, MOOCs go through a cycle of hype. After the balloon of inflated expectations shrank again, for example, the Huffington Post and the Financial Times asked in March 2013 Are we MOOC d out ?. Regardless of these forecasts, the development will continue and it will become clear at what level a productivity plateau will emerge. With MOOCs, which are recognized as a course achievement, the examination situation poses a challenge for the universities. If tests are carried out in test centers, the flexibility of the location suffers. That is why technical solutions are often used to ensure the student's identity: not just the webcam, but also the DIGITALKOMPAKT # 07 15

18 BACKGROUND MOOCS HYPE OR HEALING? Individual keystroke patterns on the keyboard show who is typing. Mouse movements and clicks can also be recorded for a digital fingerprint. Because the students interact with the teaching materials almost exclusively via digital channels, a lot of data is generated that can be evaluated in different ways. Without going into the data protection issue here: These data make it possible to continuously measure and compare the learning progress of the students. In addition, weak points in the conception of the course can be uncovered in order to improve it or adapt it to the requirements of the students. Coursera also makes money sharing the best student data with potential employers. POWER MEASUREMENT ONLINE? Since learning is a social and strongly qualitative process, the question remains, what can be measured here and how exactly. It is easy to make correlations with a lot of data, but because there is a lack of causal relationships, it is better to use estimates than measurements and not jump to conclusions. The recorded data may be numerous, but they do not reflect the overall situation and context. At least, however, the learning progress can be estimated at shorter intervals and not only summatively at the end in the form of a single grade. On platforms like the Khan Acadamy, this principle is used to adapt the questions that come up to the level of the learner. Thinking a little further, this could lead to personalized education. The search results on our computer are personalized. In the future, personalized drugs should take our genetic and individual circumstances into account. Why not design education according to the taste and needs of the individual? That may sound appealing, but the idea of ​​the transparent learner is more of a deterrent and affects numerous data protection issues. THE HUMAN FACTOR MOOCs impress with high numbers of participants. However, the non-binding behavior and the short attention span of users on the Internet also seem to apply to the online courses. It takes very little time to register, and because most courses are free, many people sniff in but don't finish the course. The dropout rate is over 90 percent. Despite online forums and chat functions, social isolation is also a common reason why online students give up. Informal inquiries from fellow students in the cafeteria or the exchange of rumors at joint parties, on the other hand, lead to a motivating group feeling of human quality. The first differences between the MOOC providers are already becoming clear. The San Jose State University has just put its cooperation with Udacity on hold because the performance of the students in the online courses is very disappointing compared to that of the normal courses. With the non-profit platform edx, on the other hand, students do better than in normal courses. While the commercial platform Udacity aims to replace on-site teaching, the content of edx only serves to support regular teaching (blended learning). DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 16


20 OPINION WHY WE ALSO NEED MOOCS A PLÄDOYER by Hannes Klöpper Sometimes it is claimed that MOOCs solve a problem that does not exist in Germany: the rapidly and steadily rising tuition fees. In the USA there has been an intense debate about the escalating tuition fees for a number of years, as student finance is becoming increasingly unaffordable, even for the middle class. MOOCs are traded as part of the solution to counteract this problem. Advocates hope that digitized teaching will enable teachers to use valuable time more efficiently and thus reduce student costs. How do the cost increases, which are significantly above the general inflation rate, come about? Thanks to all sorts of technical aids, a single assembly line worker now works much more productively than a colleague in the emperor's time. The number of seats in the lecture halls of the Humboldt University, on the other hand, has hardly changed since Fichte and Hegel taught there. Baumol's cost disease (services are difficult to rationalize) is particularly evident in the education sector, as in many service sectors. BUDGETS VS. STUDENT NUMBERS In the continental European higher education system, in which students do not play the role of paying customers, the cost pressure to which the system is exposed as a whole is barely noticeable. But that does not mean that the steadily rising costs of university teaching have no impact whatsoever. In this country the problem is different: the public budgets for teaching have not kept pace with the growth in student numbers since the 1960s and, to a greater extent, since the turn of the millennium. For the individual, studying at a public university has not become more expensive. But anyone who knows the conditions at universities in Germany knows that we still have a problem: with the quality, access to teaching and student support. So far it has been agreed that the quality of a course and the number of students show an inverse correlation. The more students, the less the individual gets from a course, for example because they rarely have a say to ask a question. In view of the dual Abitur classes and the abolition of compulsory military service, German universities are currently also experiencing extreme growth in student numbers. DOUBLE ROLE OF DIGITAL TEACHING MOOCs, however, offer the possibility of reversing the inverse relationship between quality and number of students. The need for action is obvious: If MOOCs create the opportunity to rebalance the relationship between access and quality, even the declining student numbers due to demographic change in the medium to long term do not offer an argument for inaction. Used correctly, digital teaching can take on a double role: in the short term, create additional capacity and, in the medium term, contribute to a restructuring of teaching that enables teachers to concentrate on those tasks and to carry them out in the best possible way that a computer cannot cope with. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 18


22 OPINION WHY WE ALSO NEED MOOCS A PLÄDOYER Often online teaching and MOOCs are only seen as a kind of copy of classroom teaching. This overlooks the fact that online and face-to-face teaching are complementary to one another. Both forms of teaching are able to do things that are only possible to a limited extent or at significantly higher cost in the other form of teaching. Online and face-to-face teaching have very specific strengths and weaknesses. It is not desirable to emulate face-to-face teaching online in the form of a virtual classroom. Rather, it is important to question which limitations of face-to-face teaching do not exist online. Online teaching formats must show their strengths: independence of time and place, interactivity, adaptability, the possibility of continuous optimization based on rich empirical data and the diversity of the participants (e.g. with regard to their age or the disciplinary, cultural and professional background). MOOCs in Germany are by no means just an interesting digital gimmick. Rather, MOOCs offer a great opportunity to substantially improve the quality of teaching. On the one hand by increasing cost efficiency, which enables better supervision, on the other hand by encouraging the development of new didactic scenarios. In addition, they bring together an unprecedented variety of learners who otherwise would most certainly never have entered a lecture hall together. MOOCs in Germany may not solve the same problem as in the USA. But another one, which is by no means less urgent. DIVERSITY AS AN ARGUMENT The diversity of the students and sophisticated forms of peer-to-peer teaching enable teaching and learning scenarios that can never be implemented in face-to-face teaching and thus create a new form of quality that is due to the large number and heterogeneity of the participants only becomes possible. This is not to be found in this form at traditional universities. A MOOC offers students the opportunity to gain concrete experience with diversity, to enter into a direct dialogue across national borders with fellow students from all over the world or to benefit from the practical perspective of course participants with professional experience. Hannes Klöpper is co-founder of iversity DIGITALKOMPAKT # 07 20

23 BACKGROUND HOW ONLINE LEARNING BREAKS UP STRUCTURES AND RENEWED PROCESSES The principle of frontal teaching has not changed or renewed for centuries: In the front of the classroom or lecture hall there is a teacher, lecturer or professor who speaks to his students. In the classroom there is still a comparatively large amount of space for the individual needs of the students, but in the overcrowded Audimax only a few of the up to 500 students get up and say: I'm sorry, I didn't understand that, can you explain that again? Flipped classrooms (or inverted classrooms) can alleviate this problem. Because the frontal teaching is mostly one-sided, the professor sends and the students receive. But cannot the pupil or student acquire the pure knowledge content independently? Can't he use a corresponding book or, even better, an interactive, multimedia format? Time with the teacher is too valuable to be wasted on imparting knowledge. Because knowledge is not worth much if you have not implied it and can apply it, if you cannot use it to develop new thoughts and connections. SAVING TIME FOR MORE EXCHANGE In the flipped classrooms, students can record the content prepared by the teacher at home according to their needs and at their own pace (videos can be rewound). The teacher prepares the learning content or puts it together. In the actual lesson, the students apply what they have learned and discuss it. The teacher takes on the role of a moderator. Flipped classrooms are also suitable for studying to make better use of the valuable time with the professor. It does not make sense to organize a flipped Audimax with 500 students, but in seminars and classes with fewer students the format can increase the quality of learning. The role of the teacher is not only changing in flipped classrooms. In the case of peer-to-peer assessments, too, students participate more actively in the learning process. In order to be able to evaluate the large number of tests and tasks of MOOCs, the individual professor cannot correct thousands of papers, one lets the students evaluate each other. In addition, they are given sample answers and points as an orientation to get a feel for how to evaluate well. These lay assessments can work for small homework or the like, but whether they can provide official, university-recognized grades is still open. OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE TEACHING Lectures have to be given regularly, however MOOCs have to be produced only once and updated every now and then. This could create new space for the professors in which they can concentrate more on their research. With the division of roles between teaching and research, research can gain additional benefits. On the other hand, professors who are very good teachers can get more attention and become MOOC superstars, such as Sebastian Thrun. In this way, barely recognized teaching talents who have so far inspired few students in small universities are given the opportunity to reach many more people with their good teaching. The number of MOOC participants would also be an indirect quality assessment of the MOOC and its producer. However, given the oversupply on the Internet, it is first necessary to gain basic attention for your MOOC, so a type of marketing must be considered. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 21

24 PERSPECTIVE FINANCING AND BUSINESS MODELS OF ONLINE LEARNING So far, no company that offers MOOCs has a functioning business model. Coursera, Udacity and iversity have brought together venture capital, but now it is up to the users to generate large amounts of demand. Companies are currently still looking for suitable models that regulate who would pay what amount for which services. As with other Internet service providers, the freemium model could prevail. The content and basic functions are free, but certain functions such as certification, customer service, personalized statistics and the like cost money.Coursera also charges universities for the content it produces. Not all professors have to produce their own MOOCs, especially for introductory events, but can, for example, buy fundamentals of botany off the shelf, so to speak. On the one hand, there is the risk that one opinion will be disseminated for everyone, or that monocultures of views and opinions will arise. On the other hand, it would actually be inefficient if 100 professors produced 100 MOOCs on the same topic. Because on average it takes over 100 working hours to prepare a MOOC. Supporting the MOOC would then only require eight to ten hours per week. DIVERSE BUSINESS MODELS In another model, which is similar to that of sales platforms such as ebay, the platforms share a percentage of the turnover generated by the MOOC providers, i.e. the universities. Providers (universities) sell a product (courses) to customers (students) and the platform operator (Coursera etc.) charges fees for this. Coursera and Udacity also receive money from companies that they refer potential employees to. In the future, companies could also pay for the infrastructure of these platforms in order to organize courses for the further training of their employees. One problem with MOOCs so far is that many universities do not officially recognize certificates for their own online courses. While the Council on Education has recommended educational institutions in the United States to do so, Stanford and other private universities would take a first step in undermining their own high-fee business model. Structures and standards still need to be created so that MOOCs can become an official part of the course. THE FIGHT FOR IDEAS AND HEADS Since the educational system of the universities in the USA also has private-sector features compared to Germany, the so-called elite universities such as Stanford, Harvard or Princeton are in greater competition. The tuition fees often only make up a small proportion of their budget, as most of the money is generated through third-party funds and donations. So it's not necessarily about attracting more students through new formats such as MOOCs. Rather, the universities compete for better students, because better students lead to better research results, which in turn strengthen the reputation of the respective university and attract more students and funds. In order to survive in this competition, universities almost inevitably have to be innovative, also because students prefer innovations that meet their needs. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 22

25 In Germany, however, this pressure to innovate is not so high. The money for the tertiary education sector (universities and technical colleges) comes mainly from public funds. The excellence initiative launched by the federal government in 2005 is an attempt to take up a competitive idea. In any case, it is not so much the universities that make money with online learning offers. It is the platforms on which the courses are processed. So far, users there have been paying fees for various services. FUNDING IS OBLIGATORY Although it is uncertain how online learning will develop and whether MOOCs have actually earned the attribute revolutionary, it is worth researching this new field and becoming active in it. Digital technologies are increasingly becoming part of everyday life for students (and other people) and must also be taken into account in the education sector. The good (and solvent) students will choose the most modern universities, and if there are none in Germany, they will go abroad. Even without tough competition, German universities have to adapt to the new circumstances. But who pays for these innovations when economic mechanisms are lacking, when education in Germany, as a common good, is mainly publicly funded? Obviously, the state must specifically promote the universities here. In recent years, the federal states have invested several hundred million euros in e-learning at universities (for example through the funding programs for new media in education or e-learning services for science). The term digital learning encompasses a wide range of applications: from hardware for face-to-face events to software for intranet and internet. Various companies and institutions (e.g. Cornelsen, West Coast University of Applied Sciences or Acer) have come together to form the Alliance for Education. This alliance does not support IT infrastructure financially, but its own working groups should develop studies and work on a reference architecture for technologies in the education sector. FIRST INCENTIVES ARE ESTABLISHED Foundations are also well suited for financing, but so far there are only a few foundations here that explicitly deal with digital technologies for the benefit of civil society. The Volkswagen Foundation is a partner of the German MOOC platform iversity. But iversity first had to put out a competition so that technical colleges and universities could apply with MOOC concepts. The courses start in autumn It is not clear whether the initial incentive will lead universities to offer courses on iversity in the future. The Ludwig Maximilians University and the Technical University in Munich rely on the global, English-speaking area and offer their MOOCs at Coursera. CASH DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 23

26 BACKGROUND PERSPECTIVE VEE SIDE EFFECTS OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF EDUCATION The structural conditions regarding the financing of education are different in Germany than in the USA. Large foundations like that of Bill & Melinda Gates or companies like Google contribute a lot to the financing of online learning technologies. The openness of the content is important to many donors. The state of California now hardly finances textbook publishers and learning software manufacturers whose products cannot be freely distributed due to copyright protection. However, anyone who produces educational materials under a Creative Commons license can count on California taxpayers' money. A similar development towards free content can be observed in Scandinavia. However, a California law that was supposed to outsource the teaching of the universities in the state to partly commercial providers has been stopped (until 2014) because it will first be awaited how the online courses will work. The focus should be more on university-internal courses. In Florida, a pro-MOOC law was stopped because the faculties rebelled. The law should force universities to award credits for MOOCs and the like, which also come from non-university providers. But now online teaching is to be expanded and tested within the university. These developments show that a new education market is emerging in the USA. However, this market is particularly dependent on political decisions and legislation. However, these market conditions are different in Germany, so it remains to be seen how the first projects (e.g. iversity) will develop and what future digital learning will have in Germany. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 24

27 Online learning applications also harbor the risk of the opposite development: educational offers can be commercialized, which threatens the independence of the content. Because providers like Coursera or iversity are private companies that want to earn money with MOOCs. If universities do not develop their own platforms (for reasons of cost, for example) but use commercial providers, dependencies arise. Similar to third-party funding through companies, these do not necessarily have to lead to poorer teaching or to an influence on teaching, since the platform operators live from good MOOCs and the students or customers prefer independent opinions. But as in other areas of the Internet, giants (quasi-monopolies) could emerge. Just as the search for information can be equated with Google, online shopping usually means Amazon, and when people talk about social networks, they usually mean Facebook (see digital compact LfM # 05 on AGFA). DONATION-BASED PLATFORMS? As soon as a commercial platform has a certain lead and a critical mass of users, the students have fewer and fewer options. One way out: the students could opt for the non-profit variant. Because it is about knowledge, a kind of educational Wikipedia would be conceivable here. The independence of the content is then a basic requirement for its credibility. Just as Wikipedia is very successful in collecting donations for its business, educational platforms could also maintain their independence through donations. Another problem with the commercialization of MOOCs would be that it contradicts the idea of ​​education as a common good. Areas could arise to which only solvent students would have access, while others would be excluded from participating in digital learning. In the area of ​​education in particular, it is also to be feared that commercial companies' profit interests are not compatible with critical educational content. Politicians would have to set limits here so that socio-political interests are sufficiently taken into account and education does not become a market-based product guided by monetary interests. KEEPING A LIGHT OF DATA PROTECTION Because data is one of the most important goods in the Internet business, it stands to reason that commercial online learning platform providers will also deal with it. (Coursera, see p. 11) already sells personal data to potential employers.) The e-learning researcher Rolf Schulmeister (interview on p. 31) recognizes: As in other online areas, data protection lags behind the facts. For example, Google also finances online learning offers and would like to take advantage of this new field. However, increasingly detailed user profiles are not only suitable for personalized learning, they also sometimes cross the boundaries of digital privacy. For example, Google collects data in order to create detailed user profiles and to offer personalized advertising (see Digital Compact LfM # 06 on Big Data). At the same time, Google, like Apple, Facebook and Amazon, are trying to keep the user in their own world (walled garden) in order to earn money in this way and to occupy further fields. In the context of some online learning offers, users have to provide a large amount of personal information, which may also be used for other purposes. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 25

28 BACKGROUND PERSPECTIVE VEE SITUATION IN GERMANY Universities in Germany have long been using digital technologies to organize their teaching and administration. Intranets and online registration forms are part of everyday life. But online courses on the Internet and on external platforms are still new territory and are currently being tried out. The Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU), for example, offers not only its MOOCs on Coursera but also videos, podcasts and text files via iTunes U (a partially free educational platform where U stands for university). The University of Bremen also has high access numbers to its (university-internal) online learning offer. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 26

29 The Leuphana University in Lüneburg operates a sophisticated online learning platform and the Hasso Plattner Institute in Potsdam organizes its MOOCs on its own Open HPI platform. Structurally, the question arises as to the spatial extent of university teaching. Because online learning has so far only been an addition to face-to-face teaching; taken together, one speaks of integrated learning or blended learning. Face-to-face and online phases are functionally coordinated so that the advantages of both phases are reinforced. Preparation and knowledge acquisition are well suited for online learning, while the relevant knowledge can be applied and internalized in face-to-face phases. However, this type of learning still requires a certain spatial proximity to the university building. This is why city-states like Berlin, Hamburg or Bremen can offer these forms relatively easily. In large federal states with many residents and universities, the attendance phases must be well organized so that the effort for the students remains acceptable and frequent long travel times do not undermine local flexibility. OVERCOMING COUNTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS The different financial resources of the universities and the political will in each country are further influencing factors that cause the heterogeneity of the online learning landscape in Germany. However, the common denominator is that all countries are striving to integrate the new technologies and that there is already a complex landscape of funding programs, initiatives and collaborations. The platform is an important central resource for the development of digital educational offers and structures. There the universities can find scientifically sound information and advice on the topic, and they can also post information about their own teaching. This is intended to promote the exchange of experience and data between the universities. For more information, see, for example, the volume State initiatives for e-learning at German universities, published by the Society for Media in Science. There it also says: If you look at the development in other European countries (e.g. GB or NL), it remains to be stated that the topic of media-based learning is still boiling on in Germany, insofar as there is still a need for and potential to catch up. SKEPSIS AT THE UNIVERSITIES Overall, universities in Germany are currently still reacting rather cautiously to MOOCs. In a press release by the University Chancellor's Working Group, it became clear at the Chancellor's Conference that MOOCs cannot replace face-to-face events in the long term, as they have so far barely met the didactic requirements of teaching based on academic success. They also do not save costs in terms of resources and space. The conception and implementation of supplementary online offers are cost-intensive because, in addition to the necessary technology, there are also costs for the competence development of teachers, the creation of infrastructural framework conditions and quality assurance. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 27

30 BACKGROUND PERSPECTIVE VEE CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS Which conditions have to be fulfilled so that online learning and digital tools can be used effectively in education? Since digital educational tools and offers transform the already complex topic of education into new and more complex formats, numerous points must be observed. todo - Competence development - Research - Distribution of roles - External service providers - Communication - Knowledge management - Coordination - Finances - Legal issues - Organizational development DIGITALKOMPAKT # 07 28

31 COMPETENCE BUILDING Teachers have to learn to deal with the new possibilities. Universities should offer further education and training in the new didactics of media and internet-based teaching. Because learning content in a new guise does not mean better education, this still requires teaching. Students, on the other hand, have to learn to learn even more independently and to reflect on learning content independently. Passive learning (listening in the classroom) is increasingly being replaced by active learning. In addition, they have to learn how to use the new formats (digital competence). RESEARCH In the course of building up competencies, research must provide scientific, as objective as possible findings that flow into the further development of this young field. People not only learn from content, but also through the way it is conveyed (educational architecture). Since no one really knows where the new educational architecture is headed, it has to be experimented with. ROLE DISTRIBUTION How can teachers, students and media producers work together? The professor knows its contents and the media technician knows the possibilities of the presentation. At which points does 3D technology make sense, when is a simple video in which the professor speaks enough? The feedback from students is an important instrument for improving teaching and can be obtained relatively easily via the new channels. EXTERNAL SERVICE PROVIDERS Who takes care of the technical effort involved in the production of MOOCs and other formats? Should these resources be gathered within the university or do external service providers (e.g. media designers) provide templates or templates on which the universities base their content (insourcing vs. outsourcing)? Cooperation processes have to be developed here. COMMUNICATION The new offers must be communicated and explained to the outside world. The students have to understand how which offers work. Who are the contact persons for advice and administration? The respective university must create appropriate websites, flyers and other means of communication. It has to promote digital learning and convince the students of it. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Because digital content is spatially free and very easy to reproduce, it must be clarified how digital knowledge is organized. With already five-digit number of courses in Germany, content has to be categorized and sorted. There is no common catalog of online learning materials, an initiative launched in 2004 by several countries has failed. Resources must also be available for maintaining (updating) and editing the content. Redundant programming or production of platforms, types of courses and digital teaching materials is, on the one hand, financially inefficient.Ande- DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 29

On the other hand, total homogenization would jeopardize the diversity of opinions. It is uncertain what the compromise will look like in detail. Synergies could be used in terms of technology and forms (shared servers, databases or platforms, shared MOOC templates), but the content should remain diverse. COORDINATION OF UNIVERSITIES With a view to role allocation and knowledge management, an umbrella organization that acts as a coordinator between the universities and as a common mouthpiece and z. B. also organized joint conferences and meetings. Common infrastructures must also be created. When it comes to interdisciplinarity, departments and faculties must also coordinate with one another. FINANCE Who pays for the new development? Depending on the degree of cooperation, federal or state-wide funding is conceivable. Companies could sponsor technology and knowledge. If universities then set up joint projects or jointly operate platforms, the cost allocation must also be clarified. Which university or which professor receives money for which service from which country or which university? It's also easy to reach thousands of people with relatively frontal xmoocs. The more interactive and participatory cmoocs require much more coordination effort and only reach relatively few motivated people. LEGAL ISSUES The internet brings with it a trend towards openly accessible content. If education is to be accessible to everyone and institutions like the UN promote Open Educational Resources (OER), copyright and usage rights must be reformed. Who Owns the Code for a Government Funded Platform? How promising are attempts to protect digital educational content with copy protection? Classic content producers such as school and specialist book publishers are faced with the challenge of tapping new sources of income. New and high-quality knowledge can mean a competitive advantage here. Examination and certification regulations must also be adapted to the digital conditions and examination standards set. Which technologies can guarantee legal certainty (how can a student who is sitting somewhere at home in front of a laptop be clearly identified and how can they ensure that they are not cheating). Last but not least, data protection issues play a major role in this context. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Which concepts should be used to respond to the increasing digitization and globalization of education? How do you react to competition from abroad? These questions must also be answered from the point of view of organizational development in order to adapt universities to the new circumstances. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 30

33 INTERVIEW THERE IS A LOT OF MARKETING IN THE GAME E-learning researcher Rolf Schulmeister on frontal teaching as a boo, the German reluctance to use MOOCs and the commercialization of education. The principle of university teaching with its frontal lectures has hardly changed for centuries. Does it have to change at all? The assumption that university teaching has not changed is not true. On the contrary: it has changed significantly, especially in the last few decades. There is more group work, more tutors, more orientation events organized by the students themselves, more internships, more excursions, project courses. In many humanities courses, lectures are subordinate to seminars anyway. Only in the large mass courses such as business administration, law or medicine can overcrowded auditoriums hardly be avoided. Couldn't the MOOCs help relieve this overcrowded auditorium? Yes, MOOCs could have a positive effect in this area. Whether Hamburg, Munich or Frankfurt, many are already working with lecture recordings. However, these records are not the only source for the students; there is still the lecture alongside them. However, numerous research projects establish that more than 80 percent of the students go to the lecture anyway. They only use the recordings if, for example, they have been to the dentist, have not understood something and want to prepare for the exam. The advantage of the lecture in the lecture hall is that the students can talk to one another live and in person. MOOCs are more than just lecture recordings. As with other online technologies, they are also believed to have revolutionary potential. Is everything getting much better at universities now? University teaching works pretty well. Sure, there is always room for improvement. But the horrific images with which supporters of the MOOCs cause unrest are exaggerated. The bogeyman is frontal teaching, but MOOCs are nothing more than frontal teaching, only in a different form there the student sits frontally in front of his screen and receives content. You have tried MOOCs: Were they a revelation for you as a student or what can MOOCs be said beyond the hype? What did you learn? This was only a revelation insofar as I rediscovered the models from the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, for example that of Robert M. Gagné, who was then working on behaviorism. It is interesting how the didactic element of the interruption is used. The students' attention span is usually no longer than 20 minutes, but with Udacity, for example, there is something new every 15 seconds, with Coursera it is between four and eight minutes. These are too short times that are used to switch between drill & practice, i.e. specific tasks. It is a model that may work for some students, but not for all. The MOOC people say that they have so many self-determined learners who get along well with it. But that is exactly not the case. Above all, it is learners who like to be dependent, who absolutely need feedback. DIGITAL COMPACT # 07 31