Is there job security in space science

  • Injury severity and location of polytraumatized children compared to adults and their importance for emergency room management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwingmann, J; Narrow, H; Südkamp, ​​N P


    PURPOSE: The treatment of pediatric polytrauma patients in the emergency room is not common. The knowledge of specific injuries in consideration of the age-specific characteristics is of particular importance for precise diagnostics and therapy. The goal of this study is the acquisition of the fr ...... PURPOSE: The treatment of pediatric polytrauma patients in the emergency room is not common. The knowledge of specific injuries in consideration of the age-specific characteristics is of particular importance for precise diagnostics and therapy. The goal of this study is the acquisition ...... of the frequency, the localization and the severity of pediatric polytrauma (age: 0-16 years) in comparison with adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period 7/01 to 5/04 the localization and injury severity of 23 pediatric polytrauma patients (age: 2-16 years) were compared retrospectivly with those of 324 ...

  • Investigation of contaminated soil and water samples and their affirmativeness. Investigations of contaminated soil and water samples and their informative value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custom, H J; Eisenmann, R [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). DVGW research center at the Engler-Bunte-Institute


    Contaminations in gas utility premises are a potential pollution hazard; hence, ground water, soil air and soil need to be tested. The authors describe major requirements for such analyzes. Soil samples are a specific problem due to the heterogeneity of the material which can be solved only by performing a very great number of individual measurements. This is demonstrated by examples from practice. The existing limits are not suitable for a hazard assessment of gasworks-typical contaminations. Schematic application of standard value recommendations like the 'Dutch List' and their abuse as a compilation of limits should be rejected. (orig.).

  • Neural correlates of social interaction in humans and their genetic modulation with special consideration of the mirror neuron system


    Cordes, Andrea


    The differently pronounced ability to social interaction, which is decisive in many life situations about success and failure, sympathy and antipathy, is the subject of neuroscientific research. The attempts at cortical localization led to the description of the mirror neuron system (SNS) in brain regions that showed activity both when performing an action and when observing it in the other person. The strongest activation of these areas was at sch ...

  • Satellite combined heat and power plants and their legal autonomy; Satellite CHP and their legal independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loibl, Helmut [Law firm Paluka Sobola Loibl und Partner, Regensburg (Germany). Dept. Renewable Energies


    Since the landmark decision by the German Court of Justice concerning the term `` plant '' in the context of biogas plants it should be clear beyond doubt that satellite combined heat and power plants (CHPs) are legally autonomous plants pursuant to Para. 3 No. 1 of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). What has yet to be finally resolved are the conditions under which satellite CHPs are to be regarded as autonomous. This will be a question of distance on the one hand and of operation autonomy on the other. In the individual case both these factors will have to be assessed from the perspective of an average objective, informed citizen. To the extent that its heat and electricity are being utilized in a meaningful manner, the plant's autonomy will be beyond doubt, at least in operational terms. Regarding the remuneration to be paid for satellite CHPs the only case requiring special consideration is when a CHP falls under the EEG of 2012. In this case Para. 1 Section 1 Sentence 2 EEG provides that the remuneration for the CHP in question is to be calculated as if there was a single overall plant. To the extent that none of the CHPs fall under the EEG of 2012, the ruling remains that there is a separate entitlement to remuneration for each satellite CHP. This also holds in cases where satellite CHPs that were commissioned after January 1, 2012 are relocated. When a satellite CHP is replaced by a new one, the rate and duration of remuneration remain unchanged. However, when a new satellite CHP is added to an existing satellite CHP via a gas collector line it is to be treated according to the decisions of the Federal Court of Justice concerning biogas plant extensions: It falls under the law that applies to the existing CHP and has an entitlement to a new minimum remuneration period, albeit subject to the degression rate provided by the EEG version in question.

  • Long-term evaluation of psychological training for obese children and their parents: TAKE


    Roth, B .; Munsch, S .; Meyer, A. H.


    Cognitive-behavioral parent-child programs have shown the best effects in treating childhood obesity so far. With TAKE (Training of obese children and their parents) we introduce a psychologically-informed training, that includes physical activity, nutrition and eating behavior but also addresses psychological issues like self-confidence, body image, social and anti-bullying skills. Long-term data from up to 64 month-follow-up showed moderate effects on body-mass index standard deviation score ...

  • Electronic structure of epitaxial chalcopyrite surfaces and interfaces for photovoltaics; Electronic structure of epitaxial chalcopyrites and their heterocontacts for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Andreas


    This thesis constitutes a comprehensive study of the surface physics of epitaxial CuInSe {sub 2} films. It comprises analyzes of the surface morphology and reconstruction, electronic band structure as well as hetero-junctions relevant to photovoltaic applications. Therefore, especially the aspect of stoichiometry variation from the CuInSe {sub 2} to the copper-deficient defect phases was considered. Preparation and analysis was completely performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions in order to ensure the investigation of well-defined samples free of contaminants. For some of the analysis techniques, single-crystalline samples are indispensable: They allow for the determination of surface periodicity by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). In combination with concentration depth profiling by angle-resolved x-ray photoemission, to types of surface reconstructions could be distinguished for the near-stoichiometric CuInSe {sub 2} (112) surface. In the copper-rich case, it is stabilized by Cu {sub In} anti-site defects and on the indium-rich side by 2 V {sub Cu} defects, as predicted by surface total energy calculations by Jaffe and Zunger. Both configurations correspond to a c (4 x 2) reconstruction of the zinc blende type (111) surface. For the defect compound CuIn {sub 3} Se {sub 5}, a sphalerite order of the surface was found, which points at a weakening or absence of the chalcopyrite order in the bulk of the material. The unusual stability of the (112) surface could also be proven by comparison with the reconstruction and surface order of (001) and (220) surfaces. The results from surface analysis were used to measure the valence band structure of the epitaxial samples by synchrotron-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The CuInSe {sub 2} (001) surface gives access to the high symmetry directions {Gamma} -T and {Gamma} -N of momentum space. By contrasting the data obtained for the stoichiometric surface with the copper-poor defect compound, a reduction of the valence band dispersion and a broadening of electron states was observed, which can be understood as a higher localization of electronic states and lower crystal quality. In addition, a strong rearrangement of the copper partial density of states was shown. The intimate knowledge of the electric structure was then exploited to demonstrate the valence band discontinuity between CuInSe {sub 2} and CuIn {sub 3} Se {sub 5}. The analysis by photoemission yielded a valence band offset of 0.28 eV, again in reasonable agreement with theoretical results. The p-n-junction in chalcopyrite solar cells is situated near the absorber-buffer interface, which is therefore crucial for the device performance. In this thesis, ZnO deposited from metal-organic precursors on epitaxial CuInSe {sub 2} was investigated as cadmium-free buffer material. In the course of contact formation, the interfacial region of the absorber becomes depleted of copper. Additionally, a thin intrinsic ZnSe layer is formed prior to the growth of ZnO. The derived band alignments show no dependence on the surface orientation of the chalcopyrite substrate and are consistent with theoretical results. The conduction band lineup is favorable for the application in solar cells.

  • Conditions and status of a new partnership of divorced parents and their influence on the relations between the generations


    Pajung-Bilger, Brigitte


    What form do the social relations between grown children and their parents take if the latter enter into a new relationship after divorce? If they do not? These questions were researched in the framework of the exploratory study "Intergenerational Relationships After Divorce", based on 54 comprehensive interviews with middle-aged divorced parents and their children. Two typical patterns could be identified: Pattern 1: "It is better if no third person takes part". Characteristic of this pattern ...

  • Climatic changes, the consequences and strategies for climate protection; Climate changes, their effects and what needs to be done to protect the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartschall, Karin; Maeder, Claudia; Tambke, Jens


    The report includes a description of observed climate changes, the global climatic change and projections into the future with special respect to Germany. The target of the European Union is to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg C within 100 years. The requirements for climate protection scenarios to reach this goal and costs of climate protection measures are discussed. The IPCC (Intergovernmental panel on climate change) does not define recommendations for an international distribution of emission reductions but is targeting to fairness between industrial, emerging and developing countries. Germany aims to reduce emission by 40% until 2020.

  • Morphological quality features of the mouse egg cell and their connection with a maldistribution of chromosome 16


    Rogge, Sabine


    Mouse egg cells were scored using light microscopic criteria. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, meiotic maldistributions of chromosome 16 of mouse 16 were also shown. The correlation between morphological criteria and chromosomal maldistribution was investigated.

  • Utilization scenarios for driving support systems in cargo traffic and their evaluation; Application scenarios for driver assistance systems in freight traffic and their evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K .; Preuschoff, E. (eds.)


    The report presents a summary of the project of the above title (EFAS project). While earlier projects focused on the technical side, EFAS is the first to present a systematic analysis, presentation and evaluation of the parameters influencing driving support systems. With the aid of a systemic analysis, the key influencing factors are defined and analyzed, and three scenarios are developed which take account of user-oriented, organizational, operational, technical, infrastructural and legal aspects. The scenarios are evaluated with the aid of driving and traffic simulations in the fields of humans, organization and technology, and actions are recommended on this basis for driving support systems in cargo transport. [German] The report summarizes the results of the project "Application scenarios for driver assistance systems in freight traffic" (EFAS). So far, the topic of driver assistance systems has mainly been advanced on the side of vehicle technology. The EFAS project is now for the first time a comprehensive analysis, presentation and evaluation. With the help of a systemic analysis, the essential influencing factors for the integration of driver assistance systems into the overall system "traffic" are determined and examined. From this, three application scenarios are developed, which combine user-related, organizational, operational, vehicle-related, infrastructure and legal aspects to create images of the future. The scenarios are evaluated with the help of driving and traffic simulations in the areas of people, organization and technology. Concrete recommendations for action for the use of driver assistance systems in road freight traffic are derived from the results. (orig.)

  • Conventional heat distribution systems and their control for room cooling; Conventional heat delivery systems and their regulation for room cooling - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, J. [Schnyder Energy, Energy Services, Bronschhofen (Switzerland); Feger, D .; Graf, J .; Rusterholtz, R. [Interstate University of Technology Buchs NTB, Buchs (Switzerland); Schoeringhumer, D .; Cenci, D. [Arbonia AG, Arbon (Switzerland); Heule, D. [hps energieconsulting ag, engineering office for sustainable energy and building technology, Kuesnacht (Switzerland)


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines how conventional heat distribution systems such as radiators and floor heating systems can be used for room cooling and the appropriate control requirements. Thermostatic valves used 'in reverse', their functional testing and the results obtained are discussed. Possibilities for their optimization are examined. The apparatus used for the measurements made on both radiator and floor-heating systems is reported on and the results obtained are presented and discussed. Further, simulations used are looked at and examples of the results obtained for rooms with varying glazed surfaces are presented and discussed.

  • The right sex. Gender constructions in extreme right-wing media and their relevance for ethnic thinking


    Wamper, Regina


    "The Right Gender" For a long time, right-wing extremism - mainly due to its dimensions of violence - has been perceived as a mainly male phenomenon. It is only since the 1990s that scientific examinations have also considered gender sensitive perspectives. For a long time since then, research has mainly focused on right-wing women and their self-conceptions. With considerable delay, right-wing extremism researchers began to discuss the category of masculinity within the extreme right. A conc ...

  • Report of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Buildings and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) on the topical peer review aging management in nuclear power plants and research reactors; Report of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) on the Topical Peer Review aging management in nuclear power plants and research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report of the Federal Environmental Ministry (BMUB) on the topical peer review aging management in nuclear power plants and research reactors covers the following issues: comprehensive requirements for aging management and its implementation, electric cables, non accessible pipes, reactor pressure vessel, calandria / pressure tubes (CANDU), concrete containment, pre-stressed concrete reactor pressure vessel (AGR).

  • Functionalized linkers for organometallic framework compounds, their postsynthetic modification and polar marked protecting groups for terminal alkynes


    Roy, Pascal


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) form the class of porous materials with the highest surface areas. This characteristic property combined with the variability of both building blocks, the inorganic node and the organic linker, makes many scientists dream of materials with very special chemical, electronic, optic and / or magnetic properties. For individual applications both building blocks, but also possibly in the framework embedded guests, play a crucial role. This work describes the synthe ...

  • Integration of electromobiles into the electricity network and its impact on the energy supply; Network integration of electric vehicles and their effects on the energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen [Research Center Juelich GmbH (Germany). Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEF), Systems Research and Technological Development (IEF-STE); Danzer, Michael [Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Ulm (Germany). Electrochemical Accumulators; Marker, Stefanie [Technical Univ. Berlin, Germany). Specialized in motor vehicles (KFZ); Maas, Heiko [Ford Research Center Aachen GmbH (FFA), Aachen (Germany); Strunz, Kai [Technical Univ. Berlin, Germany). Department of Sustainable Electric Networks and Sources of Energy (SENSE); Weinmann, Oliver [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    Electrically powered vehicles are currently seen as a promising option in sparing resources, improving security of supply, gaining local freedom from emissions, increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road traffic. Due to the energy turnaround this trend is now paralleled by an increase in the share of renewable energy in the electricity supply and hence in fluctuations in energy production. This has led to greater demands being placed on the design of electricity networks as well as on power plant deployment planning. New concepts for the integration of energy from fluctuating sources, including the use of storage facilities, are also becoming attractive as a result.

  • Synoptic evaluation of modeled and bioindicated atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in forests; Synoptic evaluation of modeled atmospheric inputs of heavy metals and their indication by biomonitors in forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Stefan; Schroeder, Winfried [Vechta Univ. (Germany). Chair of Landscape Ecology; Fries, Caroline [PlanWerk - office for ecological specialist planning, Nidda (Germany)


    Heavy metals (HM) concentrations in moss, leaves and needles and organic surface soil layers, derived from the European Moss Survey, the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) and the ICP Forests were compared with those from deposition modeling by use of LOTOS-EUROS (LE) and EMEP / MSCE-HM in terms of their spatial patterns and temporal trends.The total atmospheric deposition differs considerably between the two models. HM concentrations in biomonitors (moss, leaves, and needles) were found to be predominantly higher correlated to deposition modeled by LE compared to EMEP. For Cd, strongest correlations could be found between deposition data calculated by LE and concentrations in moss (Europe, geostatistically estimated) and in needles (Germany). Regarding Pb, the coefficients of correlation came out to be the highest for EMEP deposition and measured element concentrations in moss (Europe) as well as for LE deposition and needles from ICP Forests Level II (Germany) and, respectively, leaves from ESB (Germany ).

  • Effects of radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma; The role of radiation therapy and its side effects in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochtrop, Thomas Alexander


    Palliative irradiation of osteolytic lesions is a considerable component in the treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of irradiation in these patients. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with multiple myeloma who were admitted to our department between 1989 and 2013. According to the staging system of Durie and Salmon 116 patients were classified as stage III. 107/153 patients were treated with radiotherapy of at least one and up to 6 bony lesions at different times. In order to evaluate the effect of local radiotherapy on pain relief and bone recalcification a uni- and multivariate analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model to correct for multiple measurements. Complete information on dose, fractionation and volume of radiotherapy was available from 81 patients treated in 136 target volumes for pain relief, and from 69 patients treated in 108 target volumes for recalcification. Total radiation doses varied between 8 Gy to 50 Gy (median dose 25 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions, 5 times a week). Results: Radiotherapy resulted in complete local pain relief in 31% and partial local pain relief in 54% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, higher total radiation doses (p = 0.023) and higher age (p = 0.014) at the time of radiotherapy were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of pain relief, whereas no significant association was detected for concurrent systemic treatment, type and stage of myeloma and location of bone lesions. The same variables were independent predictors for pain relief in the multivariate analysis. Recalcification was observed in 48% of irradiated bone lesions. In the uni- and multivariate analysis higher radiation doses were significantly associated (p = 0.048) with an increased likelihood of recalcification. Side effects of radiotherapy were generally mild. Conclusions: Higher total biological radiation doses were associated with better pain relief and recalcification in this retrospective evaluation of multiple myeloma patients. In addition, in the elderly the therapeutic measures appear to develop a better analgesic effect.

  • Si {sub 3} N {sub 4} materials and applications; Si {sub 3} N {sub 4} materials and their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woetting, G .; Leimer, G .; Gugel, E. [Cremer Research Institute GmbH and Co. KG, Roedental (Germany)


    Silicon nitrides, or silicon nitride-based materials, offer a very wide range of high-duty applications due to their high mechanical strength and good resistance to thermal, corrosive, and / or abrasive wear. Variation and optimization of their properties in response to intended applications is described in detail, also referring to potential new applications. (orig./CB) [German] Silicon nitride (Si3N4) or SN materials are already used in a wide variety of applications as highly stressed components due to their high mechanical strength and good thermal, corrosive and / or abrasive resistance. In order to use optimal materials for the respective application conditions, specific modifications are possible and sensible. Commercially available Si3N4 material qualities in this regard are presented and current and potential applications are discussed. The component costs, which are often cited as an obstacle to widespread use, are discussed. (orig.)

  • Photogalvanic effects induced by terahertz-lasers in semiconductor quantum films and applications; Terahertz laser-induced photogalvanic effects in semiconductor quantum films and their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Wolfgang


    In this work photogalvanic effects where investigated in GaN / AlGaN heterostructures for the first time. For this purpose one of the strongest pulsed terahertz lasers in the world was built and a computer controlled measurement system was developed. Additionally in this work an application of photogalvanic effects is presented, a pure-electric detection system, which allows to determine the polarization state of terahertz radiation in sub-nanosecond time resolution. (orig.)

  • More efficient resource utilization of geothermal plants. Technical possibilities and their assessment; More efficient use of resources in geothermal systems. Technical possibilities and their evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, Nils; Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. For environmental technology and energy industry


    The geological conditions in Germany allow maximum temperatures between 160 to 170 C free well head taking techno-economic constraint into consideration. This makes an electricity production for purely technical reasons possible, but only with low efficiencies due to physical constraints. That's why it assaults big amounts of waste heat. For example, the existing geothermal power plants in Germany provide in average 18% of electricity and 82% of heat. This heat is use so far only to a very small degree. Even a district heating system is operated to supply private households, this heat is used with less than 2,500 hours per year. That's why the still hot thermal water is press back into the underground without any further utilization. For these reasons to achieve a technical and economic optimization it should be the aim to find different reasonable options to use this waste heat. One possibility is the coupling with a drying process at the location of the geothermal plant. Such options will be analyzed from a technical and economic point of view and some conclusions will be drawn. (orig.)