How was it that Shivaji had a natural leader?


Goa is located on the central west coast and is the smallest state in India. It has an area of ​​3702 km² and 1,458,545 inhabitants. The Goanese language is Konkani. It was originally a dialect of Marathi, but is now recognized as a language in its own right. Goa was a Portuguese colony for around 450 years and was culturally strongly influenced by the colonial power, which is also reflected in the high proportion of the Catholic population. The capital of Goa is Panaji.


After Vasco-da-Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498, the Portuguese made many expeditions there. In 1510, Alfonso de Albuquerque attacked Goa with the help of Vijayanagar and took the region. With the arrival of the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier in 1542 the proselytizing of Goa began. The Portuguese retained control of Goa with the exception of a brief interruption in the second half of the 17th century when Shivaji, the most important leader of the Marathas, conquered some areas in and around Goa. Even after India's independence, Goa remained in the hands of the Portuguese. It was not until December 1961 that Goa was liberated and declared a federal state of India.


Only 38% of the land area of ​​Goa is used for agriculture, as the salinisation of the soil is a problem. It is therefore necessary to fall back on food imports from neighboring countries. The most important crops are rice, sugar cane, coconut and cashew nuts. Vegetables and fruits are also grown to a lesser extent. In contrast to agriculture, fishing far exceeds Goa's needs, from which the fish processing industry benefits. Despite its small size, Goa is rich in raw materials. In 2001/2002 11.4 million tons of iron ore were mined, which corresponds to about 14% of the total Indian production volume. The industrial sector of Goa is also well developed and accounts for around a quarter of GDP. The most important branches of industry are the food, luxury food, metal processing, wood and paper, rubber, plastics, chemical, pharmaceutical, electrical engineering and textile industries. The mainstay of Goa's economy is tourism. As the most popular Indian travel destination, the state accounts for around 12% of overseas visitor numbers.

Cities and sights


The state of Goa has miles of white sand beaches that attract thousands of vacationers annually. The most popular of all beaches is Calangute, a 7 km long inland curved beach that is about 15 km north of Panaji. In addition to the beautiful sandy beaches, Goa also has a diverse flora and fauna to offer. On the forested area of ​​Goa, which makes up about a third of the total area, you can find exotic ferns, grasses, palms, fruits, textile fibers, etc. In the Bhagwan Mahavir National Park, visitors have the opportunity to observe animals in their natural environment. Excursions inland to Velha Goa, the old Goa, are also recommended. There are picturesque palaces and churches from the time of the Portuguese colonial rule. The most interesting temples in Goa are the Mangeshi Temple, which is 22 km east of Panaji and is an important Hindu pilgrim center, as well as the Sri-Brahma Temple, which is located near the border with Karnataka.

Climate & geography

Goa is located on the Konkan Coast, the central west coast of India. The coast has a length of 101 km and is criss-crossed by numerous estuaries. Mormugao Bay is one of the best natural harbors in India. The narrow coastal plain is connected to terrace-like tabular lands with a height of 30 m to 100 m, which merge into the Western Ghats in the east. The mountains of the Western Ghats take up about 15% of the country's area and are on average 800 m high. The Sonsogor is Goa's highest elevation at 1,167 m.
The climate is tropical and is determined by the summer monsoon (June to September). During the monsoons, the average temperature is 26 ° C. In the hot season, temperatures rise to up to 35 ° C. Due to its proximity to the sea, Goa has a humidity of around 60% even in the dry season.