Who was Sultan Salauddin Ayyubi
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Saladin's name was Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub or Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ayyubi and was given the title of "the victorious king" [al-malik an-masir]. He lived around 1137-1193 AD. and founded the Ayyubid dynasty.
Saladin's father Ayyub was born in Dwin in what is now Armenia. Saladin itself was founded in 1137 or 1138 AD. Born in Tikrit in what is now Iraq. Although he did not aspire to a military career, the ruler of Damascus, Nur ad-Din, ordered him to accompany his uncle Shirkuh on a campaign to Egypt in 1163 AD. After the conquest of Egypt and the death of his uncle in 1169 AD. Saladin received supreme command over Egypt, initially as vizier of the last caliph of the Fatimids al-Adid. After his death, Saladin declared himself Sultan of Egypt. There he sold the established Shiite teaching and converted the Al-Azhar University into an exclusively Sunni educational institution. 1174 AD he fell out with Nur ad-Din. After his death (also in 1174), Saladin seized control of Sham against his eleven-year-old son and heir al-Salih Ismail al-Malik and declared himself sole ruler.
With the conquest of Mosul in 1186 AD. and Aleppo in 1183 AD. Saladin had the power to achieve the reconquest of Jerusalem. After the decisive victory over the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin on July 4, 1187, he conquered Jerusalem on October 2, 1187, ending 88 years of Christian-European rule over the city.
After the capture of Jerusalem, he is said to have released the Christian population for a bounty. Surprised that the rich Christians preferred to keep their remaining wealth for themselves instead of buying the poorer brothers out, he is said to have finally sacked those who could not pay the bounty. 1188 AD he was able to realize further conquests in the Crusader states of Tripoli and Antioch. During the Third Crusade he lost the important port city of Akko and suffered a defeat against Richard the Lionheart at Arsuf in 1191. Then there was a truce between him and his opponent for three years and eight months. Saladin died in Damascus on March 3 or 4, 1193 at the age of 55, and his empire began to fall apart shortly thereafter.
Hardly any other Islamic ruler is as well known in the West as Saladin. And although he had inflicted severe damage on the Crusader states, he was held in particularly high esteem for centuries; he went down in European historiography as a chivalrous opponent and archetype of the noble pagan. His relationship with King Richard I, the Lionheart of England, was one of mutual respect and military opposition. Once when Richard fell ill, Saladin offered him the services of his personal physician and had peaches and snow brought to him from Mount Hermon to cool drinks.
Something similar has been handed down from his diplomatic relations with Frederick I Barbarossa, in which he allegedly asked for his daughter's hand on behalf of his son in 1173, with the option that he should then be crowned Christian king. However, this is likely to be a rumor that was spread by Christian chroniclers. The Egyptian delegation sent to Aachen for this purpose stayed at Barbarossa's court for six months, where they presumably negotiated an alliance against Byzantium. After Saladin's recapture of Jerusalem, Barbarossa is said to have asked him in a letter dated May 26, 1188 to a knightly duel on November 1, 1189 in the Egyptian plain of Zoan. However, this letter was probably an English forgery. Barbarossa did not achieve his goal and nothing is known of Saladin's response.
Lessing dedicates the drama "Nathan the wise"the sultan and his life and makes his hero in it a champion of the tolerance concept of the Enlightenment. The second main character in the crusade epoch is Richard the Lionheart from England. The oriental sultan and the Nordic crusader become the great antipodes of the" struggle of cultures "fought in the Middle Ages.
Sultan Saladin is portrayed as wise and chivalrous towards his war opponents: At the Battle of Acre, in 1191 during the Third Crusade, Richard the Lionheart conquered the city from Saladin's troops, and then, with little generosity, he has 3000 Muslim prisoners murdered. But Saladin, although he too had taken prisoners, refrained from giving in return for like.
The campaign that Saladin waged against Jerusalem is reconstructed in "Kingdom of Heaven" (2005), a monumental film by Ridley Scott. The earlier film "Saladin" (Egypt 1963) shows the reconquest of Jerusalem under Saladin, the beginning of the 3rd Crusade and Saladin's legendary encounter with Richard the Lionheart. Directed by the Egyptian Youssef Chahine, who has received several awards for his cinematic works in Europe.
The name “Salah-ud-Din” means “righteousness of religion.” The Iraqi province of Salah ad-Din and Saladin's eagle are named after him.
Saladin's shrine is located in the immediate vicinity of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus (see picture below left, April 2007).
The two sarcophagi that lie on his grave are a specialty. While the wooden grave lies on the original grave, the second one made of marble (see picture above right, April 2007) is a gift from Emperor Wilhelm II in 1898 during his visit to Damascus.
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