# Can protons transmit electricity

## Big Bang HTL 1, textbook

36hw7p Selected Phenomena 133 Fundamentals of Electricity 1 16 16.1.2 A Little Bit of Electricity The Elementary Electric Charge This section deals with one of the most interesting properties of electric charge. Which it is will not be revealed yet. What do you know about the history of the atomic model? Can arbitrarily small charges be transferred through friction, or is there a very small charge? And if so, how do you know how big this smallest charge is? Can you calculate it? Which charges are actually transferred by rubbing? Positive, Negative, or Both? And how do we actually know that the negative charges are negative and the positive charges are positive? F3 A2 F4 A2 F5 A2 loaded. The fact that the electrons are negatively charged is purely a matter of definition. It could also have been set the other way round (F5). The charge of the protons and electrons is called the elementary electrical charge e. It corresponds to 1.6 · 10 –19 C (Coulomb; see Section 16.1.3). Every charge occurring in nature is an integral multiple of e. This value cannot be calculated, it can only be determined in an experiment. The first to succeed was the American ROBERT MILLIKAN in 1907, who received the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physics for this. Info: The Millikan experiment The Millikan experiment In lengthy experiments, ROBERT MILLIKAN succeeded in determining the unit charge. Tiny oil droplets are generated with an atomizer, negatively charged and placed between two charged plates (Fig. 16.8). The downward gravitational force as well as the air buoyancy and the electrical force upward act on each droplet. Now you change the tension of the plates until the particle floats. You can see that with a microscope. The charge of the droplets can then be determined from all measurable parameters. Different numbers of electrons are transferred to the oil droplets when they are charged. Millikan was able to show, however, that the total charge of the droplets is always a multiple of a certain charge, which we now call the elementary charge e (Fig. 16.9). i Fig. 16.8: Schematic test setup Fig. 16.9: Test protocol: The charge of the oil droplets is always a multiple of the elementary charge. Matter has a very interesting property: if you divide and divide it, at some point you come across something indivisible. These smallest particles are called quanta. We are interested in the components of atoms here: neutrons, protons and electrons. The former are theoretically divisible again, but that doesn't matter in everyday life. Info: Quarks The charge is like matter: at some point you come across something indivisible (F4). The smallest, freely occurring charge has the proton (+) and the electron (-). They are equally strong, but opposite quarks. The electron is no longer divisible. Neutrons and protons consist of smaller particles, the so-called quarks (Fig. 16.7). The electric charge of the quarks is either –1/3 or +2/3 of the elementary charge e. Quarks can never appear individually, but they are always combined in such a way that their total charge is an integer. The quarks in the proton, for example, have the charges +2/3 e, +2/3 e and –1/3 e. Makes the total charge + e. The quarks in the neutron have the charges +2/3 e, -1/3 e and -1/3 e. That is why it is outwardly neutral. i Fig. 16.7: While the electrons are no longer divisible, neutrons and protons each consist of three quarks. For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv