How to Back Up Your iTunes Library
Environment. Paper & tax threatens lamp revolution. The EU plans to sell energy-saving lamps from the Far East from the market for fiscal purposes.
1 Environment DIE ZEITSCHRIFTF Ü R Ö KOLOGIEIMB Ü RO No. 2, June 2001 Publication organ of the Association for Environmentally Compatible Papers and Office Ecology Switzerland (FUPS) and the Forum Ecology and Paper (FÖP) appears quarterly fiscally driven from the market. By Pieter Poldervaart Taxes can also harm the environment: The EU Commission is planning to show compact fluorescent tubes from China the red card. If the cheap lamps disappear from the market, the lighting revolution threatens to end. I N A L T Toner dust as a risk 8 Apartiva is looking for new paths 11 Benin: Forests is life 12 Ugra stays tuned 14 FUPS conference successful 18 Paper consumption explodes 20 Energy-saving lamps need less electricity, every child knows that by now. It is also known that they cost significantly more than an ordinary light bulb. But the bottom line is that the compact fluorescent tubes, as the technical name gives them, make ecological and economic sense because they live considerably longer than their simple Edison counterparts. China mixes up the EU market Nonetheless, energy-saving lamps of Asian provenance are still cheaper. China, for example, has significantly lower production costs and would like to roll up the EU mark with its cheap pears. It is only clear that the new competitor arouses little love from European manufacturers such as Osram, Sylvania and Philips. The professional light-makers organized in the “Association of European Lamp Manufacturers” vigorously lobbied and on February 8 of this year persuaded the European Commission to introduce an “anti-dumping tax” against cheap Jakob from the Far East. Climate policy in jeopardy This will initially run for six months and make Chinese goods more expensive by up to 75 percent of the production price. On August 8, the ministerial council must confirm or revoke the decision of the EU Commission. The agenda item is more than a tariff skirmish in the eurozone. "An extension of the penalty tax could have serious consequences for the EU's climate and energy policy", writes the Danish Environment and Energy Minister Svend Auken in a letter to the responsible EU commissioners. Is paragraph breaking off? On the one hand, the present study is criticized as being incomplete and flawed. For example, different qualities of energy-saving lamps have been compared with one another and the lack of competition in European industry has been given too little attention. What is worse, however, is that a decision to the disadvantage of China could mean that the prevented competition in Europe will cause prices for energy-saving lamps to climb. The sales figures, which are still growing at the moment, could decline, because "low procurement prices are crucial for consumers," writes Auken. Ultimately, the opportunities for the EU to achieve its CO 2 targets will be weakened. Because: "Energy-saving lamps are one of the cheapest and most efficient means of saving energy." Will the genetically modified forest come after GM food? The risks for the ecosystems are considerable, as shown in our technical article starting on page 3.
2 PORTRAIT “If you know more, you can have a say” Sevim Civil brings Turks closer to Switzerland. By Paula Carega Sevim Civil is the editor in charge of «Gazete». The German-Turkish language newspaper wants to help understand Switzerland better. In the portrait series “People and Media”, Paula Carega introduces personalities who, in the broadest sense, deal with the media in their daily work. The full-length portraits were published in "M", the magazine of the Comedia media union. Sevim Civil is a qualified gymnastics teacher. She does the balancing act not only on the gym mat, but also throughout her life between two cultures. Even as a teenager, she accompanied Turkish-speaking friends who did not understand German to Swiss authorities and offices. She translated during visits to the doctor, helped with filling out the tax return and learned how important it is to master the language of the local population. “If you know more, you can also have a say” is the motto of the Turkish-Swiss dual citizen who came to Switzerland from Ankara at the age of eleven. And, according to Sevim, Turkish-speaking women and men who have immigrated to Switzerland should have a say. Today Sevim Civil is 35 years old and the responsible coordinator of "Gazete", the first newspaper in Switzerland, which appears bilingual in Turkish and German every two weeks. The medium, with its editorial office in Basel, has a print run of between 8,000 and copies and reports on political, social, economic and cultural developments in Switzerland. Understanding Switzerland better "A large part of the Turkish-speaking society in this country lives in a world of its own that is difficult to understand for the Swiss," says Sevim. The majority of their compatriots continue to gather information from Turkish media products: six Turkish daily newspapers are posted at the kiosk, and around 13 Turkish television channels can now be received via cable and satellite. The editorial offices of all these products are located «Gazete» wants to build bridges in two languages. in Turkey. The consequence of this, however, is that many Turkish-speaking people living in this country are not well informed about Switzerland. «The lack of knowledge leads to fears and insecurities. Often my compatriots do not understand what society expects of them. " The uncertainty also prevents the cultures from getting closer: “Communication between immigrants and the local population still works poorly today,” says the editor. The newspaper makers of “Gazete” want interest in Switzerland to be taken for granted. "We want to help Turkish-speaking immigrants to understand this country better," says Sevim. Whoever picks up the newspaper therefore learns little about his home country, but all the more about how Switzerland works and what concerns the Swiss. "Gazete" provides the necessary background for understanding important political discussions and explains local customs and traditions. Survival thanks to volunteers A major concern of the seven-person editorial team is that the politically neutral and independent “Gazete” addresses both Turks and Kurds. The newspaper is being printed in Germany today for cost reasons and the Turkish-speaking population in north-western Switzerland has been sent free of charge by post, the newspaper project has started; In the first two years, Gazete received financial support from the canton and private foundations. Now the editorial team is hoping for a boost from the federal government. “The newspaper could not survive without the numerous volunteers,” Sevim clarifies. Photo: Mena Kost 2
3 Editorial Broken promises Those were the days when ecology was an important image factor. In the mid-1990s, for example, Swiss financial institutions outbid each other with green declarations of intent. In environmental reports - in the past decade, environmental reporting only really caught on, the sensitized customers were written by the mouth. But what happened to all the good intentions? The journalist Hanspeter Guggenbühl, who specializes in energy topics, compared the dusty explanations of yore with the figures published today. The result, published in various daily newspapers, is disappointing: Neither UBS nor Credit Suisse or Thurgauer and Zürcher Kantonalbank have achieved their goal. The CS phenomenon is noteworthy, for example. In 1999 it consumed seven percent less electricity and nine percent less heat per square meter. But because the employees need a fifth more space, the consumption per workstation increases. It is clear that it is not technical problems that are hindering the change of course, but a lack of interest on the part of bankers. This is shown by the positive example from Swiss Re: It has more than fulfilled its target of reducing specific energy consumption by ten percent by the year 2000: its electricity consumption per square meter fell by 16 and its heating energy requirement by 30 percent. with practically the same space consumption. Pieter Poldervaart Laboratory for Genetic Forest Genetic manipulation makes tree nursery with high risks In the past, the forest grew and you cut what you needed. But the establishment of forest monocultures for wood production changed the view of a “good” forest. The variability of natural forests became a sign of disorder and a lack of planning; non-wood products were regarded at best as “minor forest products”. In contrast, trees whose growth rates were classified as too low from an economic point of view were released for felling as "overripe". Plants and animals that reduced the wood yield became weeds or pests. Plantations give wings to genetic engineering The next step in the manipulation of forest ecosystems is the massive use of breeding genetics and genetic engineering. Genetic changes give the industry new possibilities for quality control, to a certain extent on a molecular level. For example, as long as paper manufacturers relied on using the various types of wood waste as a raw material, they had to rely solely on woodworking processes to ensure consistent paper quality. Only with special wood plantations can the variability of the raw material be reduced through the choice of type and location, the use of chemical aids or a standardized propagation of the trees. The genetic modification of trees is now developing into the next step, the homogenization of the raw material wood. The goal today is no longer a large plantation with a single tree species, but with genetically identical trees. For the wood industry, genetic engineering processes are so interesting not least because they can be used to bypass conventional breeding. Because of their long life cycles, it is very time-consuming and costly, especially for trees. In addition, it is hoped that it will also be able to use properties of other species that are not available to classical breeding genetics. Bacteria genes can be used to increase their resistance to insects. Pine genes can improve nitrogen uptake and growth rates in poplar trees. The public pays millions If you ask yourself who strives for, pays, patents and tests the genetic modification of trees, you repeatedly come across the operators of industrial monocultures. One of the largest attempts to establish genetic engineering as a forestry method goes back to a 60 million dollar joint venture initiated in 1999 between the seed manufacturer Monsanto and the paper companies International Paper, Westvaco and Fletcher Challenge. Their goal was to produce wood that was easier to process into pulp. Most of the basic research is, however, financed by industry-friendly state institutes that work together with industrial consortia and universities. This fits better with the conservative attitude of many timber companies, who prefer to rely on the tried and tested strategy of charging the public with research costs wherever possible. US environmental agency is involved. A good example is Tree GENE TECHNOLOGY By Viola Sampson and Larry Lohmann (*) Food made from genetically modified raw materials is hardly available in Switzerland and Germany, but it is in the USA, Canada, Asia and South America already grown on a large scale. In the slipstream of the discussion about GM food, genetically modified trees grow quietly into the sky. The consequences are hardly foreseeable. (*) Viola Sampson works for the English organization Eco-Nexus (Larry Lohmann has been working on the effects of plantations on paper production since he was editor of The Ecologist magazine. Today he works for the English organization The Corner House. This article was first published as "Corner House Briefing Paper No. 21" (caap.org) and in full length in the recently published edition of the Ökozid-Journal in December 2000. Please note the marginal column on page 4 and the advertisement on page 6. 3
4 GENE TECHNOLOGY Ökozid-Journal pd. For a decade, the Ökozid-Journal, the “Journal for Ecology and Third World”, has acted as a discussion forum for ecology and economy, nature conservation, politics and the citizens' movement. The paper primarily provides background reports and analyzes of hot spots, but it also interferes in political debates and gives readers tips on how to take action. The new edition, which appeared in June 2001, contains, on the one hand, the detailed version of the article, which has been greatly abridged here. Then there is wood, logging in Laos and the questionable German export guarantee, the so-called Hermes guarantees. The Ökozid-Journal appears twice a year (A4, 56 pages) and costs DM 18. plus postage abroad. A sample booklet is available for 5 DM. Contact: Working Group Rainforest and Species Conservation (ARA) Jürgen Wolters August-Bebel-Str D Bielefeld T F E tic Engeneering Research Cooperative (TGERC) of the Oregon State University in the USA. TGERC conducts research on trees that have been genetically modified to improve their fiber production or to increase herbicide tolerance and resistance to fungi and insects. The work is funded by the American program for biofuels, the Department of Agriculture and the US Environmental Protection Agency, various wood and paper companies, the research institute for electricity, other companies such as Monsanto and Shell and Oregon State University itself. The more money for the research the biotechnological manipulation of trees is available, the less incentive there is for foresters to investigate the alternative, which is: harnessing natural genetic potential. While the importance of forest ecology and tree genetics is widely recognized, the necessary research is lacking in money. The consequences of an uncritical use of genetic engineering in forest ecosystems are obvious: The genetic transfer of new properties to trees threatens to increase the known ecological and in many places associated social problems of industrial monocultures: Photo: Pieter Poldervaart 1. Lignin-reduced trees Due to the multifunctionality of lignin Expect damage at various levels. A decrease in the level of lignin can structurally weaken trees, although this can also lead to a strengthening of the cellulose fibers. Some researchers report stunted growth, broken ducts, leaf changes or a greater susceptibility to viral infections. Because lignin protects the trees from insect damage, greater damage is to be expected if the trees are modified accordingly. The required pesticide use is correspondingly higher. In addition, these trees will rot faster and thus not only affect the soil structure, fertilizer use and forest ecology as a whole, but also release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere more quickly. "Minor Forest Products" is what the forest technocrats disparagingly call "forest fruits" like cocoa. 2. Insecticide-producing trees Genetically modified trees that produce their own insecticides are very likely to contribute to turning previously harmless insects into pests, as the insecticides of the trees exterminate their competitors. In the meantime, the actual target insects will develop resistance, which will force an increased use of conventional pesticides. In addition, unexpected pesticide loads can occur in the ecosystem. It was observed that crops that were provided with the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis, contrary to expectations, excrete it through the roots. There it combines with soil particles, remains in the upper soil layer for more than 200 days and is still poisonous for a long time afterwards. In addition, it cannot be ruled out that the insecticides of the trees also damage those insects that are essential for an intact ecosystem. As long as these trees have an advantage over others that are more threatened by insect damage, it will be easy for them to spread in natural forests and lead to a change in the dynamics of insect populations there. 4th
5 GENE TECHNOLOGY 3. Disease-resistant trees Trees that have been given resistance to pathogens can contribute to the spread of new epidemics. It is generally accepted that the genetic diversity of trees is an important requirement for the health of a forest ecosystem. In plantations with cloned trees, genetic variability is extremely low. The correspondingly high susceptibility of these trees will in all likelihood also require massive measures to combat disease. The on-site production of fungicides against leaf rust and leaf spot diseases can lead to dangerous changes in soil ecology, decay processes and the ability to absorb nutrients.It has also been shown that genetic resistance to viruses can accelerate the development of new strains of pathogens. 4. Herbicide-resistant trees Increased tolerances towards herbicides will lead to an increased use of these agents in order to keep the plantations free of "unwanted" plants. Broad spectrum herbicides damage soil structure and fertility through changes in the root system; they affect soil insect populations and their food chains. If the fungi and bacteria necessary for a healthy soil are impaired, fungi and bacteria harmful to the plants follow them. Ultimately, this will lead to increased use of fungicides. If herbicides are used over a longer period of time, they can also be dangerous for birds and other animals, as they reduce their food supply. At the same time, they create ideal conditions for the development of herbicide-tolerant plants - and thus a need for higher doses or more aggressive chemicals. Although the manufacturers promise "environmental friendliness", glyphosate, the active component of the herbicides preferred in plantations (like Round-Up), behaves in the soil in a similar way to inorganic phosphates. It ends up in the water cycle and it can take years to break down. Glyphosates also impair the healthy balance of soil organisms and kill beneficial insects such as wasps, lacewings and ladybugs. Glyphosate tolerant trees were planted in field trials in the US, Europe and South Africa in the 1990s. 5. Faster Growing Trees Trees that have been genetically engineered to grow faster are likely to require more water than the fast growing species currently being planted on industrial plantations. Dehydration and salinization are becoming an increasing problem for the people living in the area. Since such trees will also absorb nutrients more quickly, they need larger amounts of chemical fertilizers. The genetically modified trees will help to degrade previously productive land. The land requirements of the plantations will not decrease, but will continue to increase and lead to greater pressure on agricultural land and natural forests. In addition, it is to be feared that these trees, because of their "advantages", will spread to an uncontrollable extent in natural ecosystems. For example, Swedish researchers have provided an aspen with an oat gene, which controls the plant's reaction to the length of the day. The result is a tree that grows just as quickly in winter, with six hours of daylight, as in uniform and desolate, that is the motto of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering against climate collapse? Proponents of genetically modified trees see them as a miracle weapon against all possible evils in this world. The US Department of Energy is proposing to develop trees with a greater ability to bind carbon dioxide in order to solve global climate problems. Corresponding scenarios envisage the construction of large plantations whose trees grow faster (in order to absorb more carbon dioxide) and at the same time have a higher proportion of lignin (in order to bind the absorbed CO 2 more permanently). The result would not only be social problems due to the questioning and degradation of large areas of land, but also the continued wasteful use of energy. If you allow the trees to rot, be used as firewood or made into paper, they release the bound carbon back into the atmosphere. Paper & 5
6 Order now! FUPS Speerstrasse Wil Please enclose CHF 5 in stamps with your order to cover the postage costs! Thanks.
7 GENE TECHNOLOGY Summer. If this poplar species had not lost its ability to survive longer periods of frost, it would have had a great advantage over other trees in the northern latitudes. Improved nitrogen uptake can also pose an ecological threat. An example from Hawaii urges greater caution. The introduction of a nitrogen-binding (not genetically modified) tree meant that a normally nutrient-poor lava soil was so heavily “over-fertilized” that native plants that were adapted to these special conditions were displaced. Mere repair shop In summary, it can be said that trees have more opportunities to spread their genetic make-up than agricultural crops. A single genetically modified tree can survive for hundreds if not thousands of years. In the system of modern breeding genetics, it seems that every new problem that arises in the search for solutions to old problems provokes the provision of new research funds. The result is a repair shop that binds intelligence and money and at the same time creates new problems. Currently there are not even the necessary prerequisites to be able to carry out a comprehensive risk assessment. On the one hand, most of the empirical experience that would be required for this is not available. Due to the size of the area, it is practically impossible to measure exactly how far the plants or their genes spread. On the other hand, a serious risk assessment would be of great benefit to large-scale industry, but not to local craftsmen. Photo: Pieter Poldervaart exclude those uses for which genetically modified trees were developed. Kenneth Raffa of the University of Wisconsin's Forestry Department, for example, suggests that the risks of resistant insects can be reduced by avoiding large or similar plantations. However, this recommendation contradicts the industrial requirements for which these trees were developed. «Immediate release stop!» The problems associated with genetically modified trees are very similar to those of genetically modified agricultural plants. In many respects, however, their effects on forest ecosystems are more serious than in agriculture. The long lifespan of trees, their low domestication, their biology, which has only just begun to be understood, the complexity and sensitivity of forest ecosystems, and the industrial and state control over extensive forest areas on which genetically modified trees could be planted, hardly harbor risks like those in other areas can be found. The open biological and social questions of genetic engineering methods in forestry are reason enough to call for an immediate stop to any further release of genetically modified trees. Genetic colonization Nowhere are the contradictions of the "solutions" promised by genetic engineers more evident than in the case of the question of how genetically modified organisms can be prevented from spreading in neighboring ecosystems. Because genetically modified trees are much more similar to their natural relatives than, for example, highly cultivated agricultural plants. Isolating them is as good as impossible - not only where plantations border natural forests. Tree pollen can cover great distances. On the treeless Shetland Islands, pollen was found from forests over 250 kilometers away. Pine pollen was found in northwest India, which the wind carried from trees 600 kilometers away. Even the insects responsible for pollination do not adhere to the boundaries between genetic engineering plantations and natural forests. It is similar with seeds. They even allow it to spread to other continents. 7th
8 OFFICE ECOLOGY The health risk from toner dust can be avoided with modern laser printers, fax and copier machines - the German Federal Environment Agency says how. In general, devices with the “Blue Angel” have an ecological and health advantage. The study by the administrative trade association at the Institute for Occupational Safety (BIA) is available from: Further information on the “Blue Angel” environmental label is available on the Internet at Refilling toner is a professional matter How to use toner cartridges correctly. If printers, fax and copier machines are used properly, there is no health risk to the user from toner dust. If modern laser printers, fax machines and copiers are regularly maintained and properly handled, only minimal amounts of toner dust can get into the environment. It is important that toner cartridges are completely replaced and only refilled in specialist companies. The manufacturers of laser printers and copiers with the “Blue Angel” environmental label take back empty cartridges, as do the suppliers of refillable toner cartridges with the “Blue Angel”. Recycling works In Germany, around 30 million PCs and almost as many printers are currently used in business and administration, in schools and research institutions, and in households. In 2000 alone, more than 6 million units were sold. Laser printers with toner cartridges are valued because of their usually higher printing speed and good print quality. When the print capacity is exhausted, the used toner must be replaced. Manufacturers and qualified recycling companies also offer complete toner cartridges for replacement or recycling programs. It's not that bad: if you don't use force to refill the toner cartridges, you are not at risk. Beware of fine dust There have been several reports in the media of a health hazard from toner dust. A possible hazard is only given if toner dust is actually released. Toner dust should not be inhaled as it, like other fine dusts, is considered to be potentially harmful. If printers and copiers are used properly, there is normally no risk to the user. Devices that carry the “Blue Angel” environmental label must also meet strict criteria with regard to the release of dust particles. No problem with normal use A research project on behalf of the administrative trade association at the Institute for Occupational Safety - Photo: Mena Kost heit (BIA) recently showed that the amounts of paper and toner dust released during operation are usually negligible if the devices are handled properly and are regularly serviced. There is more information on this on the BIA website (see margin column). The Federal Environment Agency recommends observing the following five tips when handling toner cartridges: 1. Empty toner cartridges should be completely replaced and never refilled by laypeople, but only refilled in designated specialist companies. 2. In the case of remanufactured toner cartridges, it is advisable to use those that comply with the new DIN standard from January 2001 in the future. 3. If toner powder is spilled due to defects or improper handling, it should be wiped up immediately with a damp cloth and not blown up. 4. Toner cartridges must not be opened with force and should be kept out of the reach of children. 5. The manufacturer's instructions in the product documents regarding the installation and maintenance of the devices and the handling of the toner containers must be observed. 8th
9 “Green” cell phone pd. 450 million people around the world already have a mobile phone. In 2003 around a billion cell phones will be in use around the world, reports the Berlin newspaper “tageszeitung”. Around half of all cell phone users only keep the device for one year. In 2003, around one billion cell phones will be in use worldwide. then a new one is purchased. But where do you put the electronic garbage? Discarded cell phones of the first generation end up in the household waste more and more often, from there to the landfill and endanger people and the environment in the long term. Some companies have recognized the problem and want to bring the fully recyclable cellular phone to the market soon. Together with manufacturers such as Ericson, Nokia Alkatel, Philips and Panasonic, Motorola has founded an industry initiative that is already organizing the return of old cell phones in pilot projects. With the help of recycling companies, a material cycle is to be created in Germany in the coming year that conserves resources and avoids mountains of rubbish. Suck instead of throwing away pd. Many companies treat their employees' computer keyboards as they do with paper tissues: Dirty copies are simply thrown away, reports the “Basler Zeitung”. Because a new keyboard only costs around 60 francs, professional cleaning of a keyboard is hardly worthwhile. It doesn't have to go that far, however. If you want to prevent your fingers from working over a dirty pool of leftover food and bacteria every day, you can simply turn your keyboard over once a week, tap it lightly and then carefully vacuum it with the vacuum cleaner. A photo: Mena Kost Another possibility is the treatment with dry microfiber cloths, which attract the dust electrostatically and remove even heavy soiling when slightly damp. Coffee mug growth market jth. In 2000, around 13 billion portions of hot drinks were sold in Europe, 10 percent of them in paper cups made from cellulose. It is expected that this proportion will increase to 30 percent by 2004, reports the magazine "Tempus". The custom of “coffee-togo”, ie coffee to go in offices, offices and department stores, comes from the USA. Thanks to the alleged advantages (lower investment, no return, no washing processes, easily printable advertising space), a great future is predicted for the paper cup. Coffee chain operator Starbucks, for example, only pours the brown drink in paper cups in its 2500 cafés worldwide. The only question that remains is whether in a few years time we will always have to carry a porcelain cup with us if we want to have a nice cup of coffee in our local pub? More eco paper for schools pd. Only five to ten percent of the approximately 200 million exercise books in Germany are made of recycled paper, as reported by the magazine "Umwelt". For this reason, the waste disposal association Hof is starting an initiative «School materials made from recycled paper» with other institutions. The schools will work on the topic, and posters in the shops will point out corresponding offers. Finally, a shopping guide will be created and distributed to all schools as well as to parents and teachers. Flat screens save energy pd. There are a total of around 3.8 million screens in Swiss offices and households. The Federal Office of Energy estimates the annual electricity consumption at 325 million kilowatts per hour, which the operation of these monitors, some of which are out of date, devours. Larger companies in particular have long recognized that choosing the right screen can save a lot of money. Consistent use of flat screens can easily cut electricity costs in half, reports the magazine “Saldo”. Such TFT screens are also characterized by excellent image quality and are extremely space-saving. This means that the screen can be set up at least 60 centimeters from the front edge of the table. In this way, the eyes are spared. Many models can also be rotated 90 degrees so that the image can be used in portrait format. The best TFT screens are listed under: OFFICE ECOLOGY Round paper bottle pd. The Japanese group of companies Kao has developed a process that enables beverage bottles to be made from recycled paper. With a new pressing method, according to the “Basler Zeitung”, round bottles can also be produced in addition to the square boxes that are common today. The new material is highly resilient and can replace the plastic bottle in the future, as the production costs of both materials are roughly the same. With the basic material paper, the new bottles are more environmentally friendly than plastic. Series production is scheduled to start soon. 9
10 Waste & Taste The Apartiva AG invited a discussion and everything started: The owners of today's company Apartiva AG, Christoph and Verena Stoll, wanted to combine meaningful work with a meaningful product. As part of the ap workshop in Kirchberg in St. Gallen, a large number of items were made from recycled paper, from pads, school materials, index cards, mailing envelopes to envelopes. The most impressive product today is probably the BI-FACE line. Formerly original environmental protection paper, recently recycled paper (RCP) from Regeno Papier AG, is colored with non-toxic, water-soluble inks. Because only the surface of the paper is printed and not the entire paper pulp, as is usual in paper production, much less dye is used. This is also water-soluble, so there are no solvent emissions, which are important arguments for the environment. What is innovative about the BI-FACE is the possibility of printing different colors on both sides. Image: Apartiva Es remains Regeno Recyclable materials are collected like wildfire in this country, including paper and cardboard of course. But when it comes to shopping, consumers usually choose white, if not ultra-white, paper. Do you need to print it out or invite you to Sunday brunch? No, a majority would think if they had followed the statements of Martin J. Linser, member of the management of the Zwingen paper mill. The Regeno, which has been awarded the “Blue Angel”, is the last genuine Swiss RCP to be manufactured in this factory. It is well known that gray paper is still more environmentally friendly in production than fresh fiber paper.Because Zwingen AG recycles waste paper from the Basel region and neighboring Germany and France, it performs even better in the ecological assessment. Tons of waste paper are converted annually in the Laufental, conversely, tons of graphic, office and newsprint leave the factory on the Birs every year. These quantities are moved by over 136 employees. Whoever buys his paper supports these jobs and at the same time prevents the import of RCPs that require a lot of transport, Linser said. Instead of 400 to 1200 kilometers away from the competition, Zwingen is no more than 300 kilometers away from the Swiss customer. What colors say Joseph Junz, owner of Metanoia Marketing in Stäfa, tried with the conference participants to understand terms such as white, black and gray and our relationship to them. We are characterized by terms such as white wedding dress, fine white bread or sparkling white teeth, black peter, black sheep or gray veil. "Is it our relationship to these terms that has such a strong influence on developments in the paper market?" Asked Junz. In any case, the fact is that paper consumption is increasing rapidly, while RCP is stagnating. Illusion or future? Annetta Steiner from Practical Environmental Protection Switzerland (Pusch) tried to find out from a different point of view why the sales of RCP got into trouble. If life cycle assessments are misinterpreted, as is the case by those responsible for the city of Lucerne, or pulp dealers aggressively advertise the end markets, while the paper associations fail to support them and there is no real interest group for the RCP manufacturers, Grau runs into problems. BI-FACE dyeing machine: the paper is fed through the ink rollers via a long drying path. In any case, the following priorities remain correct: avoidance, environmentally friendly production, recycling, closing local cycles and environmentally friendly disposal. In practical terms, this means “the right paper in the right place”: waste from test prints, recycled paper for short-lived items, original recycled paper for special items and lighter RCP for colored, illustrated brochures. RCP desperately needs innovation, BI-FACE from Apartiva AG is a step in this direction. PRODUCTION From Csaba Bajusz recycling paper it was difficult for the pioneers to feel that too. Today's Apartiva AG was one of the first processors to get involved in gray paper. An information event at the end of March made it clear that and how things will continue. 11
11 FOREST MANAGEMENT Selling cashew nuts instead of firewood In the north of Benin, a Swiss woman is committed to reforestation. Trees improve livelihoods pac. The agroforestry project in the Atacora province in northern Benin was initiated in 1999 by the Swiss foundation FSSM (Fondation Suisse pour la Santé Mondiale). The aim is to sensitize the local population to the consequences of deforestation and to support them in planting trees. There are now 14 tree nurseries run by village communities and local groups. The nurseries buy the seeds and necessary tools on credit. The proceeds from the seedlings, which they sell to farmers in the surrounding communities at low prices, are used, for example, to improve the water supply in the village. Today the project receives on-site support from Jura-Afrique, an organization that has its origins in Switzerland. FSSM contact address: Claude Petitpierre 19, route de Rennex CH-1294 Genthod Donation account: Banque alternative Lausanne FSSM account number: The jeep dashes across the corrugated iron road at eighty kilometers an hour. This is the only way to make the bumps and potholes reasonably bearable. Leaving a large cloud of dust behind, the car eats up kilometer by kilometer. We are on our way to Dassari, a remote village in the far northwest of Benin, on the border with Burkina Faso in West Africa. Here the desert climate of the Sahel begins to make itself felt. Mountain areas alternate with dry savannah, interspersed with mighty baobab trees and gnarled thorn bushes. Every now and then the eye catches a spot of color on the roadside: women who are on their way to the market. Almost all of them carry large bundles of wood on their heads. Selling firewood and charcoal brings them a few francs, money they need to buy soap to wash, oil, salt, or sugar. But cutting down the trees has consequences: In the province of Atacora, the forests are disappearing. Bare, ocher-colored areas are spreading out more and more, on which now, in mid-May, at the end of the dry season, there are only dry bushes. “It's unbelievable what is cut down every day. Even entire avenues that the French planted in colonial times were cut down, ”says Franziska Müller. But the Swiss woman, who has been coordinating an agroforestry project in Atacora for a good year and a half (see margin column), cannot blame the people living here: “The farmers are incredibly poor. Often they have no other choice but to use the wood and the floor for a short time. " Living conditions are deteriorating. In addition to deforestation, there are slash and burn operations, which regularly get out of control and destroy valuable trees, as well as overgrazing by cattle. Apart from the Pendjari National Park, which Benin shares with its neighbor Burkina Faso, most of the province is cultivated land; Maize, yams, cassava and millet are grown in the small fields. A large proportion of the farmers also cultivate cotton. A profitable business that makes farmers dependent on wholesalers. In addition, the cultivation of cotton requires a high use of pesticides and fertilizers, and the plant leaches out the soil. The need for arable and grazing land in Atacora is steadily increasing as the population has doubled over the past 20 years. Families with six or eight children are common, and polygamy is common. The ongoing deforestation is taking its toll. This is how the climate is changing: the duration and intensity of the rainfall are decreasing - last year's rainy season from July to the end of September was so weak that there were crop failures. The drought also leaches out the soil and promotes erosion; the water table is sinking, so that wells have to be built deeper and deeper. "The living conditions of the village communities have deteriorated drastically in recent years," says Fran. Firing wood every day takes its toll: In just a few trees. Ziska Müller. Today women would have to walk long distances every day to find water and firewood for their daily cooking. The soil is less yielding than it used to be, and the yield per hectare is decreasing. Motivated despite a lot of extra work In Dassari, around 20 women have come together and founded a tree nursery. The women have already sown hundreds of plants this season; by the onset of rain at the end of June, the seedlings must be ready for sale so that they get into the ground on time. This allows them to grow enough during the rainy season and form roots that are sufficiently deep. Everything in the nursery is manual work; just drawing water with the draw well takes hours. The women tirelessly wear a size 12
12 en FOREST MANAGEMENT in the immediate vicinity of the villages there are only le bowls to the plant beds, pour the water into spray cans and distribute the valuable liquid. They patiently press seed by seed into the prepared planter bowls. Daily work awaits at home: cooking, washing, looking after the children. Many women also brew beer that they sell in the market. All in all, an enormous amount of work that women do. But they are motivated: Selling the seedlings brings them a valuable financial boost. At the moment she works a good four hours a day in the tree nursery, says Hortense Sahgui. The 36-year-old mother of seven hopes that the women's group will be able to open a small general store with the profit. Most popular cashews The idea of sowing trees and selling seedlings was an image: Paula Carega Image: Klaus Schilder was initially a stranger to people, says Franziska Müller. In contrast to a corn field, trees are ultimately just there and grow by themselves, according to the opinion. The population has now realized that the deforestation has consequences for the land, climate and vegetation and that it is therefore necessary to reforest. Which native tree species are planted is up to the farmers. They prefer varieties that promise a yield: In addition to orange and mango, karité or néré, this is above all the cashew nut tree. After just four years, it bears the first fruits that can be sold on the market. Whenever possible, the seedlings are planted in existing fields. This better protects the young trees from bushfires because the ground is not overgrown with grass. In addition, after several years of grain cultivation, the fields need at least ten years of fallow; this fallow time is optimally used by the tree planting. After several weeks of work, the seedlings from the Dassari tree nursery are ready to be sold. Facts about Benin pac. Benin celebrates its birthday on the same day as Switzerland. The democratic republic in West Africa, which has been independent of France since August 1, 1960, is one of the poorest countries in the world today. The vast majority of the 6.3 million population makes a living from agriculture. Benin, the size of Switzerland and Austria combined, exports cotton, peanuts and palm oil, among other things. The official language is French; around 60 percent of the population are illiterate. The 42 ethnic groups each have their own language, culture and tradition. The tropical country with beautiful sandy beaches in the south and one of the largest West African nature reserves in the north is struggling with environmental problems such as drinking water scarcity, deforestation and desertification. More about Benin: nn.edu/african_studies/country_specific/benin.html 13
13 PRINTING INDUSTRY Environment would be a topic UGRA symposium shows trends in printing and media, only a few print shops are interested see Csaba Bajusz Ecology is actually not a foreign word for the printing industry. This was documented by the various presentations at this year's UGRA symposium on the subject of environmental management in the printing and media industry. Relative environmental impact, rubp: Environmental impact points UBP are usually given in absolute numbers, here the absolute UBP of the production of virgin fiber paper wood-free uncoated are assumed to be 100% and wood-containing uncoated and recycled paper are compared with it. Since "the Swiss are open to environmental issues and penalize producers who disregard environmental and nature conservation concerns with a purchase waiver", environmental protection is given a status that modern management can no longer ignore, said Hans-Ulrich Bigler. The director of VISCOM, the Swiss Association for Visual Communication, opened the 11th UGRA symposium (UGRA: Association for the Promotion of Scientific Research in the Graphics Industry) in Zurich at the end of March. Over 80 participants were brought up to date on environmental progress in the graphics industry. Who pays for the waste paper? The question of early disposal fees for recovered paper is asked again and again. Martin Häberli, Secretary of the STAR (Swiss Team for Waste Paper Recycling) refers to an Infras study on waste paper material flows of the year Packaging weights) and the high import share (70 percent) or the foreign direct mailings made a clean financing solution for the disposal of waste paper impossible. If disposal fees are brought forward, there is a risk that there will be large gaps in the collection and that imported goods will be preferred. For these reasons, STAR advocates a comprehensive advance disposal fee. However, this means that the paper industry runs the risk that such a fee - similar to that for waste glass - will be made mandatory by the federal government. From an ecological point of view, any increase in the price of pulp or waste paper, no matter how modest, is to be welcomed. Burn me ?! Like the German Federal Environment Agency, Walter Brunner from envico AG in Zurich comes to the clear conclusion that paper recycling is more environmentally friendly than burning waste paper. In a study, collection logistics, production and disposal or recycling of waste paper in Switzerland were assessed with regard to their environmental impact. The study shows that the production of recycled paper (rubp, relative environmental pollution points: 20%) scores significantly better than the production of fresh fiber paper (rubp: 100% for wood-free uncoated, rubp: approx. 45% for wood-containing uncoated). The share of the pollution of the collection and transport stage of the waste paper in the total environmental pollution of the recycled paper is only 20%. In addition to the environmental impact, economic aspects such as disposal costs in waste incineration plants and other thermal disposal systems are of course also decisive. Finally, the costs of building new incineration plants for one million tons of waste paper are also significant. Finally, the costs of importing recovered paper or fresh fiber in order to continue producing paper must also be taken into account. Conclusion: It still makes sense to collect waste paper and use recycled paper. Proven Swico concept Ruedi Affolter represented the suppliers of equipment for the graphics industry in the Swico Environment Commission (Swiss trade association for information, communication and organization technology). So far, 17 suppliers of graphic equipment have come together to take back used equipment from the graphic industry for an advance recycling fee. The affiliated companies thus assume ecological responsibility for their devices. The return process is easy to organize and guarantees professional disposal by Swico. It became clear that many people in charge in trade and industry notice that environmental management must be integrated into company management and that the environment will increasingly become a cost factor in the future. 14th
14 natives fight back pd. The plantation of the Borneo Pulp and Paper Project (BPP) will one day extend over 2000 square kilometers. Fast-growing acacias are planted for papermaking and some oil palms for short-term profit. A total of 100 square kilometers of Iban land are being sacrificed to this mega-plantation, a project by the government of Sarawak (Malaysia) and Asia Pulp and Paper Ltd., which is in dire financial straits. The Iban are the largest Dyak tribe in Sarawak, with more than more members. As they have been farming for centuries, they have not been so badly affected by deforestation. Only the total clear-cutting for paperwood and palm oil affects them sensitively; because the independent Iban farmers also need land for agriculture and fruit gardens, forest for hunting and clean water. The gigantic plantation projects do not stop at their territories, they destroy their economy and livelihood. Since November 2000, the residents of twelve warehouses on the Tatau River have been blocking the access road to the project area, preventing work from starting, as the magazine "Tong Tana" reports. Although the Iban have filed a constitutional lawsuit against the cancellation of their land rights and the case has not yet been settled, the court ruled in favor of the BPP Company. Nevertheless, the blockade continues to this day. Ten percent reserves pd. Within the next 30 years, ten percent of Swiss forests are to become reserves. Half of them are to become nature reserves, in which nature is left to its own devices. The other half are special forest reserves, in which humans intervene cautiously to promote rare and threatened species. In nature reserves, the forest should be left to its own devices. However, it is not expected that every single canton will designate ten percent of its forest area as a reserve: In accordance with the diversity of natural landscapes, nature conservation strategies must also be tailored to the regional characteristics. Large reserves of over 500 hectares, of which there are still too few, are given special support. Cooperation between neighboring cantons is intended to ensure that each region implements a sensible reserve division. Federal President Moritz Leuenberger, the Federal Office for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL) and the cantonal offices have agreed on these goals. In doing so, the diversity of forest communities, species and genes should be preserved. Further information: Willy Geiger Vice Director SAEFL T Industry devours primeval forests pd. Since the 1950s, annual paper consumption in Germany has risen from 32.2 kilos to over 200 kilos per person. Forecasts continue to indicate rising trends. The paper industry is booming, forests are disappearing and monocultures are emerging. Industrial forestry has ecologically critical consequences and destroys the habitat of the most diverse forest peoples, all of whom live from and with the forest. If this ecosystem is destroyed, they lose their home, their culture and their economic basis. Their land rights are very insecure and are often violated in favor of the economic interests of others.However, the majority of forest peoples have never surrendered their rights. Even so, deforestation, destruction and displacement continue unhindered. The consequences of forest destruction are devastating: the water balance is severely disturbed and soil erosion occurs. The original vegetation can no longer regenerate, even over long periods of time. A large number of animal and plant species are disappearing with the forest. Forest destruction is also partly responsible for global climate change. This development can only be counteracted if the demand for wood as a raw material is reduced in the industrialized countries. Reducing paper sales comes first, along with recycling and collecting waste paper. More information at: FOREST MANAGEMENT Finally the saws are silent. A local coalition of environmentalists, German paper manufacturers and newspaper publishers succeeded in stealing an area the size of Hesse from the Canadian government: all use is prohibited in a good square kilometers of temperate rainforest in the western Canadian province of British Columbia. In a further 68 valleys with 5500 square kilometers, there will be a ban on harvesting for two years in order to negotiate ecologically compatible use. The German paper industry, the third largest customer of Canadian paper products, is rightly proud of this success. The main beneficiaries will be the indigenous people of the protected areas. They do not have to fear that they will be driven out of the last of their original settlement areas. However, deforestation in the remaining areas continues. Literature tip: "Do something!" (5/2001) Domino-Verlag E 15
15 Paper collection privatized pd. Until July 1, 2000, the transport service of the civil engineering office in St. Gallen collected waste paper and cardboard. However, since the collecting discipline grew from year to year, the price-performance ratio for the city was no longer right for a long time. The amount of waste paper collected has increased from 3990 to 6658 tons in the last ten years, reports the St.Galler Tagblatt. The personnel and infrastructural burdens on the disposal apparatus were thus increasingly strained. They went over the books and decided to leave this collecting service to private individuals. Texta has been collecting waste paper and cardboard for almost a year now and is also entrusted with trading these recyclable materials. Since the permanent fluctuations in the purchase price can be very high, a price range was agreed: The city of St.Gallen has signed a contract with Texta which guarantees that Texta will not give it less than 30 francs per ton sold. If the price rises, the city gets more cream, if it falls, it receives this minimum amount in any case. "In 1999 we had to pay an average of eight francs per ton to pass on the waste paper to the dealers," explains Urs Frischknecht, the head of the waste disposal department. From the road to the rails pd. The Biberist / SO paper mill is helping to shift heavy traffic from road to rail. Of the tonnes of paper that are generated for the forwarding company at the Aarau terminal each year, up to tonnes are transferred to the diverted combined transport. To this end, the paper mill set up a shuttle operation in cooperation with the regional transport company Regionalverkehr Mittelland AG and the transport and logistics company Dreier AG, as reported by the “NZZ”. Since 2001, 24 swap bodies have been on the move between Biberist and Aarau every day. The paper mill thus handles two thirds of the transport volume by rail and relieves the A1 of 50 truck trips every day. Image: Mena Kost Franks for tidying up pd. A flood of free newspapers has been pouring over many Swiss cities since autumn 2000. Every morning in Bern at more than 40 locations for «metropol» gazettes, «20 minutes» around times. There are also countless newspaper boxes in trams and buses, at tram and train stations. After reading, they often stay in place. At the beginning, Bern-Mobil press spokeswoman Annegret Hewlett admits that clearing the newspapers in the tram and bus did not work out optimally. However, there can be no talk of a huge disorder today. A cleaning company commissioned by “20 minuten” takes care of tidying up the trams and buses in Bern, Basel and Zurich. This costs “a lot of money”, says Peter Pletscher, distribution manager for “20 minutes”. The cleaning company's bill has already run into Swiss francs a month, reports the “Confederation”. The SBB are also affected by the newspapers lying around. Many commuters leave the leaves on the train after their journey. An attempt on the Zurich-Winterthur route, where free newspapers are in demand on the train, but it immediately turns into waste. Waste paper bins were set up, however, did not bring the desired result. "So much ordinary waste ends up in these bins that it is easier for our staff to collect the newspapers directly," says SBB media spokesman Roland Binz. Off for school collection pd. In Langenbruck / SO, the house blessing between the school and the community has got into trouble. The reason: Against the will of the teaching staff, the students were released from collecting waste paper with immediate effect. The teachers - currently only women teach in the Passdorf - fear for their reputation, as people might think they want to shirk their work. There are other reasons why the school no longer collects waste paper. The people of Langenbruck want to be able to dispose of their waste paper more often than before. The waste paper can now be handed in at a collection point twice a week, as reported by the «Baselandschaftliche Zeitung». PAPER INDUSTRY Environment Prize 2000 pd. The winner of the European Environment Prize 2000 in Category 1 (Management Prize for Sustainable Development) was the Danish company Brodrene Hartmann A / S for molded pulp packaging. The award places particular emphasis on the ability of companies to include ecological and social aspects in the management of their activities. The Danish company has developed a unique management model based on the rhythm of life. The new tool called STEP (Systematic Tool for Environmental Progress) includes continuous performance assessment and ongoing dialogue with relevant stakeholders, thus disseminating information to a network of 150 companies. Further information at: 17
16 FUPS / ÖBU New impetus for gray paper There are no real reasons against recycling paper, but prejudices are growing. By Pieter Poldervaart Recycled paper is under pressure even though it makes economic and ecological sense like never before. Instead of pure eco-arguments, clever marketing and the role model function of authorities and private individuals may get caught. This was shown by a symposium that the FUPS held together with the Association for Conscious Corporate Management (öbu) in Wil at the end of June. The sponsors: SCA Packaging Switzerland Druckerei Flawil Media partner: Umwelt-Focus Papier-Ratgeber pld. The newly published paper guide of the FUPS also provides a lot of background, figures and tips. It is available from the secretariat for five francs (for postage and packaging) (see slip on p. 23). It's hard to believe: after months of lead time, a Lucerne municipality switched its printed matter and consumables to recycled paper (RCP). At the same time, in addition to the usual wastepaper baskets, there were collecting bins for waste paper in all public institutions. But the exemplary environmental campaign did not last: When an employee of the garbage disposal dropped the comment that the waste paper was being burned with the rest of the waste anyway, the separate collection collapsed. The rumor spread throughout the community within 24 hours that the collection bins had literally disappeared from the ground overnight. The unfortunately true anecdote from FUPS managing director Daniel Gerber shows: Prejudices and negative reports about recycled paper and paper recycling are easy and persistent. Meager fare for critics The podium to discuss prejudices and actual weaknesses of RCP was the symposium “Paper and Ecology How Much Gray Can It Be?”, To which FUPS and the Association for Ecologically Conscious Corporate Management (öbu) invited at the end of June . More than 50 participants in the FUPS hometown of Wil / SG showed that despite all prophecies of doom, RCP is far from dead. Rather, it is fitter than ever, but the scoffers and badgers of yore, who rightly complained about musty smelling, dusty and brittle original environmental protection paper 20 years ago, would be taught a lesson today if they were to grapple with the RCP of the third millennium. Photo: Pieter Poldervaart Honest and civil servant? Outdated or simply incorrect information seems to thrive particularly well on the grayish paper. Robert Krügel-Durband from the CI agency ivony knows many of them from his own experience. Because the advertiser, who is aware of environmental issues, tries wherever possible to make recycled paper popular with his customers. “Dreary, dirty and boring”, a widely heard judgment, mostly falls back on the senders, said Krügel-Durband. It is not the paper that is shabby, but the way it is used, i.e. the design. RCP just requires a little special treatment in terms of screen widths or coloring. Even the supposedly higher price doesn't catch on: In the mass market such as copy paper, RCP is significantly cheaper; and in the case of printed advertising material, the material costs play a subordinate role anyway. The designer also replied that RCP was “upright and civil servant”: “If that's the case, then it's the fault of the design, the structure and the content of the printed matter.” Paper view from all perspectives: Frecy Dinkel (Carbotech), Andrea Ries (WWF), Daniel Gerber (FUPS), Edy Birchler (Canon Schweiz AG), Robert Krügel (ivony Ltd.), Gaby Hildesheimer (öbu), Matthias Unseld ( Wiler Zeitung) from left to right Subversive introduction of ecology As always, the good cause of the environment needs committed and convinced ambassadors. Krügel-Durband is one of them, who does not march with the green standard, but rather subversively emphasizes the advantages of gray paper: “It is a paper that lives, that has an identity and also passes this identity on to the company or the advertised product . " If the client hesitates, nowadays almost every company mission statement includes a Sunday saying on the subject of the environment, which the RCP mission makes particularly easy to fulfill. Serious eradicators can also be convinced in installments if necessary. Two years ago, a company managed by ivony switched from a coated to an unpainted 18
17 FUPS / ÖBU chenes paper, then at least had the inside part of the annual report printed on RCP; In 2001, both the cover and its contents should be of eco-quality. In the spirit of saving paper, Krügel's statements can be downloaded as PDF files: /aktuell/projekte/papier_kruegel.pdf. "Far superior to the cheapest paper" Compromises are also the order of the day at Canon, reported Edy Birchler, who is responsible for the Canon environmental department. Starting in August of this year, people will be moving away from the crisp white stationery and switching to Nautilus from the Neusiedler company, which has at least 50 percent post-consumer waste. Years ago RCP was even more popular at Canon, but a change in the top management floor put an end to it. "The support really has to come from the very top, but customers can also help us if they report problems and requests," says Birchler. Conversely, Canon is actively involved in sensitizing users and encloses a Regeno-Copy package with a corresponding accompanying note with every device that leaves the workshop. From years of experience, Bichler knows that RCP no longer has any technical hurdles, rather that “good RCP is far superior to some of the cheapest paper in terms of quality”. When asked what makes RCP different from white, Birchler's answer is succinct: "Only the color." "Burn it!" should be disposed of Legends also revolve around the question of whether waste paper should not be better placed in the oven than in the paper mill. The Basel engineering office Carbotech analyzed the two corresponding studies by “New Scientist” (1997) and the German Federal Environment Agency (2000). The conclusion of the physicist Fredy Dinkel: The authors of the famous “Burn it!” Article in the “New Scientist” had calculated correctly, but compared unequal fruits. It was not taken into account that in the case of paper recycling, a certain forest area does not have to be felled and the wood at least exchanges information even without paper next to the presentations and the podium, especially during the break. could theoretically be used efficiently as an energy source. Dinkel: "The recycling of waste paper and the use of the saved wood as a renewable energy source is ecologically cheaper than burning the waste paper and producing new paper from wood." And this comparison is also the central question. Photo: Pieter Poldervaart 17 percent clear-cut pulp pld. Every year, forests twice the size of Switzerland are lost worldwide. No wonder, 60 animal and plant species are dying out every day: “Forests are an important reservoir of biological diversity,” says Andra Ries, member of the WWF management team and responsible for the WWF forest campaign. The environmental organization is not concerned with total protection of all forests, but rather with achieving sustainable use. So far, the focus has been primarily on the furniture and construction industries. “But we have now recognized that the paper industry is a key industry,” says Ries. 42 percent of the wood harvested commercially today goes to the paper and cardboard industry, and the trend is pointing upwards. It is noteworthy, by the way, that contrary to popular belief, the growth in consumption in industrialized countries is greater than in emerging and developing countries. 17 percent of the pulp consumed worldwide still comes from primeval forests, 54 percent from (however) used forests and 29 percent from plantations, "which are not always unproblematic," said Ries. In Indonesia, for example, only eight percent of the paperwood comes from plantations, and a total of 40 percent is illegally felled. In addition, erosion and wastewater containing chlorine endanger the livelihoods of the population. Obviously, paper has no white vest. But the choice of sustainably produced paper is getting more and more difficult, because the multinational corporations also procure their raw materials internationally and mix them up again. The FSC label, which was awarded for the first paper last year, could help in the field of pulp. Control consumption pld. Even old truths can remain valid, the latest figures from ZPK and VDP (see article p. 20 and 21) prove it: In addition to efficiency (as optimal and economical use as possible), sufficiency (frugality) must become the top priority of our paper consumption. Only in this way is it realistic to get the steeply growing paper consumption and the associated ecological and social problems under control. The priorities are therefore in the restriction of consumption (especially in industrialized countries), in the use of recycled fibers and where fresh fibers are still used in the use of paper wood from sustainably managed forests such as FSC. 19th
- What is a masala tea
- What are the types of radio waves
- How to pronounce the name Eunice
- What are the different types of racism
- Where can I find a girlfriend
- Aluminum is the lightest metal
- Everyone uses investing for retirement
- Have you ever seen friendship between animals?
- How creative is DeepMind
- Which manufacturer has the best engine
- What is the problem of the cities
- What are early memories
- Why do Mormons have racist teachings?
- What was the 1960s MOD style
- How big is a nipple
- Will humans ever have sex with robots?
- Phenol is more stable than alcohol Why
- What are index futures
- What is Gotoxie C.
- How should I save scraped web content
- Can insects become overweight
- Should addictive cell phone games be illegal
- How can I catch fish easily
- What vowels are silent in Portuguese